|Scientific Name:||Chaetodon lunulatus|
|Species Authority:||Quoy & Gaimard, 1825|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Widely cited in the literature as Chaetodon trifasciatus, a species now regarded as being restricted to the Indian Ocean and Coral Triangle.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L.A., Pyle, R., Craig, M.T. & Pratchett, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
While there have been declines documented in some areas, these are not believed to have substantially affected the global population. In addition, it has a wide distribution, large population and no apparent major threats other than coral loss. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Widespread in the western Pacific from eastern Australia northwards to Japan and eastwards to the Tuamotu Islands and Hawaii. Also along the Western Australia coast (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). It occurs at depths of 1-25 m. Range size ~56.6 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projection of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Cambodia; China; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati (Phoenix Is.); Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., US Line Is., Wake Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It has declined significantly in French Polynesia and the Great Barrier Reef (Berumen and Pratchett 2006, Pratchett et al. 2006), where there has been coral loss and bleaching. However, in the Pacific bleaching has been patchy, and it is unclear to what extent this affects the global population.
Very common species: mean of 2.38 individuals per 200 m2 in northern
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found in rich coral areas of lagoons and seaward reefs to depths of about 25 m. Animals are predominantly found in pairs. The species is an obligate, but generalist corallivore, capable of feeding on a very wide array of different corals (Pratchett et al. 2004). Like most butterflyfishes, this species recruits in relatively low numbers and requires live branching coral for recruitment. Consequently, recovery from population collapse is likely to be slow (Pratchett et al. 2008).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is sometimes collected for the aquarium trade (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006).|
|Major Threat(s):||Relies on live coral for food and recruitment, and has declined significantly following climate-induced coral depletion on the Great Barrier Reef (Pratchett et al. 2006). However coral bleaching and coral loss has been patchy throughout the Pacific Ocean, and localised declines due to coral loss have not substantially affected the global population. There are no apparent threats other than coral loss.|
There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is present within marine protected areas. Monitoring of this species is needed in conjunction with coral monitoring.
Adrim, M., Chen, I.-S., Chen, Z.-P., Lim, K.K.P., Tan, H.H., Yusof, Y. and Jaafar, Z. 2004. Marine fishes recorded from the Anambas and Natuna Islands, South China Sea. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 11: 117-130.
Berumen, M.L. and Pratchett, M.S. 2006. Recovery without resilience: persistent distrubance and long-term shifts in the structure of fish and coral communities at Tiahura Reef, Moorea. Coral Reefs 25: 647-653.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Jones, G.P., Caley, M.J. and Munday, P.L. 2002. Rarity in coral reef fish communities. In: P.F. Sale (ed.), Coral reef fishes; Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem, pp. 81-101. Academic Press.
Pratchett, M.S. and Berumen, M.L. 2008. Interspecific variation in ditributions and diets of coral reef butterflyfishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae). Journal of Fish Biology 73: 1730-1747.
Pratchett, M.S., Munday, P.L., Wilson, S.K., Graham, N.A.J., Cinner, J.E., Bellwood, D.R., Jones, G.P., Polunin, N.V.C. and McClanahan, T.R. 2008. Effects of climate-induced coral bleaching on coral reef fishes - Ecological and economic consequences. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 46: 251-296.
Pratchett, M.S., Wilson, S.K. and Baird, A.H. 2006. Declines in the abundance of Chaetodon butterflyfishes following extensive coral depletion. Journal of Fish Biology 69: 1269-1280.
Pratchett MS, Wilson SK, Berumen ML, McCormick MI. 2004. Sublethal effects of coral bleaching on an obligate coral feeding butterflyfish. Coral Reefs 23: 352-356.
Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.
|Citation:||Rocha, L.A., Pyle, R., Craig, M.T. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon lunulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2015.|
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