|Scientific Name:||Chaetodon baronessa|
|Species Authority:||Cuvier, 1829|
Chaetodon barronessa Cuvier, 1829
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L.A., Pyle, R., Myers, R., Craig, M.T. & Pratchett, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
While there have been declines documented in some areas, these are not believed to have substantially affected the global population. In addition, it has a wide distribution, large population and no apparent major threats other than coral loss. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed from Christmas Island (Australia) in the eastern Indian Ocean through Indonesia, New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), and the Philippines east to Fiji. It ranges as far north as southern Japan, to northern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia in the south (Pyle 2001, G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). It is found between 1-20 m in depth. Range size ~31.7 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projection of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998).|
Native:Australia; Christmas Island; Fiji; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Micronesia, Federated States of ; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Tonga; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It has declined significantly on the Great Barrier Reef (Pratchett et al. 2006), where there has been coral loss and bleaching. However, in the Pacific bleaching has been patchy, and it is unclear to what extent this affects the global population.
In some areas it can be a very common species: in the northern
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found within the clear waters of fringing reefs (Allen 1980). It is a territorial species and actively chases away other butterflyfishes encroaching on its food supply (Allen 1980, G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). Mostly occurs in pairs. It is an obligate corallivore and feeds predominantly on Acropora corals (e.g., Pratchett 2005), but it also occurs in habitats with no Acropora corals.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is sometimes collected for the aquarium trade. It does not adapt well to captivity because of its specialized diet.|
|Major Threat(s):||Relies on live coral for food and recruitment, and has declined significantly following climate-induced coral depletion on the Great Barrier Reef (Pratchett et al. 2006). However coral bleaching and coral loss has been patchy throughout the Pacific Ocean, and localized declines due to coral loss have not substantially affected the global population. There do not appear to be any major threats other than coral loss.|
|Conservation Actions:||There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is present within marine protected areas. Monitoring of this species is needed in conjunction with coral monitoring.|
Adrim, M., Chen, I.-S., Chen, Z.-P., Lim, K.K.P., Tan, H.H., Yusof, Y. and Jaafar, Z. 2004. Marine fishes recorded from the Anambas and Natuna Islands, South China Sea. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 11: 117-130.
Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Burgess, W.E. 1978. Butterflyfishes of the world. A monograph of the Family Chaetodontidae. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Jones, G.P., Caley, M.J. and Munday, P.L. 2002. Rarity in coral reef fish communities. In: P.F. Sale (ed.), Coral reef fishes; Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem, pp. 81-101. Academic Press.
Pratchett, M.S. 2005. Dietary overlap among coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 148: 373-382.
Pratchett, M.S. and Berumen, M.L. 2008. Interspecific variation in ditributions and diets of coral reef butterflyfishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae). Journal of Fish Biology 73: 1730-1747.
Pratchett, M.S., Munday, P.L., Wilson, S.K., Graham, N.A.J., Cinner, J.E., Bellwood, D.R., Jones, G.P., Polunin, N.V.C. and McClanahan, T.R. 2008. Effects of climate-induced coral bleaching on coral reef fishes - Ecological and economic consequences. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 46: 251-296.
Pratchett, M.S., Wilson, S.K. and Baird, A.H. 2006. Declines in the abundance of Chaetodon butterflyfishes following extensive coral depletion. Journal of Fish Biology 69: 1269-1280.
Pyle, R. 2001. Chaetodontidae. Butterflyfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae), pp. 3224-3265. FAO, Rome.
Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.
Steene, R.C. 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. and A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia.
|Citation:||Rocha, L.A., Pyle, R., Myers, R., Craig, M.T. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon baronessa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.|
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