|Scientific Name:||Perameles bougainville|
|Species Authority:||Quoy & Gaimard, 1824|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Friend, T. & Richards, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Lamoreux, J. & Hilton-Taylor, C. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Endangered because it has an extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km2, an area of occupancy of less than 500 km2, all individuals are known from 5 locations, and there are extreme fluctuations in the population in response to rainfall. With all but one of the locations for the species in Shark Bay, the probability that fluctuations could be synchronous can not be ignored. Additional potential threats that are major include: the accidental introduction of predators (introduced cats and foxes), extensive fire, and disease. Currently the overall population of this species is considered stable and they may even be increasing as a result of reintroductions.
|Range Description:||The Western Barred Bandicoot is endemic to Australia, where it occurs naturally on Bernier and Dorre Islands in Shark Bay, Western Australia (Friend 2008). This species formerly ranged over much of southern Australia. There are reintroduced populations in Shark Bay (Heirisson Prong and Faure Island) and Arid Recovery Reserve at Roxby Downs, South Australia.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size fluctuates with rainfall. The overall population is under 10,000 mature individuals. There are perhaps about 5,000 in total on Bernier and Dorre Islands, where the species is considered abundant (Friend 2008). The population appears to be stable on the two islands. There are over 200 individuals in Heirisson Prong, over 20 on Faure Island, and about 40 in Arid Recovery. There is also a captive colony at Return to Dryandra Field Breeding Facility, and a small number of animals are held at Kanyana Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre (Richards 2005).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Vegetation types occupied on Bernier and Dorre Islands include Triodia grasslands and scrub communities on vegetated dunes, and on sandplains, although the species is particularly abundant in sandhills behind beaches. On the mainland, this species was recorded from semi-arid areas with a variety of vegetation types, including scrub, open bluebush and saltbush plains and stony hills (Friend 2008). Females give birth to between one and three young, and can have up to four litters per year (Richards 2004).|
The current major threats to the natural populations of the species include: the accidental introduction of predators (introduced cats and foxes), fire, and disease (Richards 2005). These same threats apply to varying degrees to the reintroduced populations. Extreme fluctuations in populations on islands are a threat, but this threat is seen as minor relative to the risk exotic predators being introduced (Short et al. 1997). With weather events becoming ever more unpredictable and all but one location for the species being located in Shark Bay, these fluctuations are still cause for concern. Introduced rats and mice are also a concern, but to a lesser degree than introduced predators.
This species probably declined through predation by introduced cats, dogs, and foxes, modification of vegetation by rabbits and stock, and possibly changed fire regimes in parts of the range (Maxwell et al. 1996). Pathogens are a problem in Bernier Island (they seem to be endemic in the population, though discovered recently); the impact of these diseases on the population size is unknown and needs to be studied. The pathogens are also found within captive colonies.
This species is listed as a threatened species under Australian law. Bernier and Dorre Islands are both protected areas, as are all the areas where the species has been reintroduced. Further studies are needed on the impact of pathogens on Bernier Island. Regular monitoring of populations is needed (annually or biannually). It is listed on CITES Appendix I.
A recovery plan for the species has been developed for the 2005-2010 period (Richards 2005). Recommendations in this plan include: protect wild populations and their habitat so that the species does not fall below the level of natural fluctuations; maintain captive populations; use of population viability analysis to compare the viability of wild, current and potential reintroduced populations, and; enhance community participation and education. The recovery plan also recommends initiating three reintroductions to the mainland within a five year period (2005-2010) (Richards 2005). Some of these, like the reintroduction to Arid Recovery, should be established "in different regions where climatic fluctuations may be out of synchrony" (Short et al. 1997).
Friend, J. A. 2008. Western Barred Bandicoot, Perameles bougainville. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 182-184. Reed New Holland, Sydney, Australia.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A. A. and Morris, K. 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Australasian Marsupial and Monotreme Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Richards, J. 2004. The First Reintroduction of the Western Barred Bandicoot (Perameles bougainville) to mainland Australia. University of Sydney.
Short, J. 1995. Interim Recovery Plan for the Western Barred Bandicoot (Perameles bougainville). Unpublished.
Short, J., Turner, B., Majors, C. and Leone, J. 1997. The fluctuating abundance of endangered mammals on Bernier and Dorre Islands, Western Australia - conservation implications. Australian Mammalogy 20: 53-61.
|Citation:||Friend, T. & Richards, J. 2008. Perameles bougainville. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2015.|
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