|Scientific Name:||Chaetodon lunula|
|Species Authority:||(Lacepède, 1802)|
Chaetodon biocellatus Cuvier, 1831
Chaetodon iunula (Lacepède, 1802)
Chaetodon luluna (Lacepède, 1802)
Chaetodon lunulatus Shaw, 1803
Pomacentrus lunula Lacepède, 1802
Tetragonoptrus biocellatus (Cuvier, 1831)
Tetragonoptrus lunula (Lacepède, 1802)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pyle, R., Craig, M.T. & Pratchett, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
Least Concern in view of its wide range, abundance and no major threats. This species has exhibited localized declines in abundance at Moorea (French Polynesia), but it is unclear whether this is linked to coral loss.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed throughout most of the Indo-Pacific region. It has been recorded from the East African coast in the west to Polynesia, including the Hawaiian Islands (USA), Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) and Ducie Island (Pitcairn Islands, UK) in the east. The range extends from southern Japan in the north to Lord Howe Island (Australia) and Rapa Iti (Austral Islands, French Polynesia) in the south. Vagrants are occasionally seen in the eastern Pacific at the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) and Cocos Island (Costa Rica). The species is very widespread with an approximate range size of ~81 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projections of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998). It is found at depths of 1-60 m.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia (Lord Howe Is.); Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Comoros; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Guam; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Phoenix Is.); Korea, Republic of; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., US Line Is., Wake Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
Vagrant:Costa Rica (Cocos I.); Ecuador (Galápagos)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is a common species often with stable populations (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in lagoons and on outer reefs where it is most commonly observed in rocky areas, either slopes or in the inter-tidal zone (especially juveniles). Animals occur singly, paired, or in small aggregations. Favoured food items include nudibranchs, tubeworm tentacles, coral polyps and algae (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). It rarely feeds on live corals (Pratchett 2005), but has exhibited a decline in abundance from 1979 to 2003 at Moorea (Berumen and Pratchett 2006).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is frequently exported through the aquarium trade (Pyle 2001).|
|Major Threat(s):||There appear to be no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species occurs in marine protected areas.|
Adrim, M., Chen, I.-S., Chen, Z.-P., Lim, K.K.P., Tan, H.H., Yusof, Y. and Jaafar, Z. 2004. Marine fishes recorded from the Anambas and Natuna Islands, South China Sea. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 11: 117-130.
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Berumen, M.L. and Pratchett, M.S. 2006. Recovery without resilience: persistent distrubance and long-term shifts in the structure of fiosh and coral communities at Tiahura Reef, Moorea. Coral Reefs 25: 647-653.
Burgess, W.E. 1978. Butterflyfishes of the world. A monograph of the Family Chaetodontidae. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
Edgar, G.J., Banks, S., Farina, J.M., Calvopina, M. and Martínez, C. 2004. Regional biogreography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago. Journal of Biogeography 31: 1107-1124.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Jones, G.P., Caley, M.J. and Munday, P.L. 2002. Rarity in coral reef fish communities. In: P.F. Sale (ed.), Coral reef fishes; Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem, pp. 81-101. Academic Press.
Myers, R.F. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.
Pratchett, M.S. 2005. Dietary overlap among coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 148: 373-382.
Pratchett, M.S. and Berumen, M.L. 2008. Interspecific variation in ditributions and diets of coral reef butterflyfishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae). Journal of Fish Biology 73: 1730-1747.
Pyle, R. 2001. Chaetodontidae. Butterflyfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae), pp. 3224-3265. FAO, Rome.
Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.
Steene, R.C. 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. and A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia.
|Citation:||Pyle, R., Craig, M.T. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon lunula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 November 2014.|