|Scientific Name:||Chaetodon humeralis|
|Species Authority:||Günther, 1860|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L.A., Pyle, R., Myers, R., Craig, M.T., Allen, G., Robertson, R., Lea, B., Rivera, F., Zapata, F., Barraza, E., Merlen, G. & Edgar, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
Chaetodon humeralis is a common species throughout its range and there are no known threats. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This eastern Pacific species ranges from Redondo Beach (Los Angeles, CA, USA) to the coast of Peru in the south. Populations are present around the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), the Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), Cocos Island (Costa Rica) and Malpelo Island (Colombia). It is known from depths of 2-55 m, usually from 3-12 m.|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States (California)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It is a common species in the shallow waters of its range (Allen 1980). It is common in rocky tide pools and on the shores of small islands nearer Panama City; it is rare in the mid-Peruvian coast (Burgess 1978). It is rare north of San Benitos Islands, Baja California, MX.
In the Galapagos Archipelago, this species had an overall mean density of 0.83 ind./500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004). In a survey conducted at Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, it had a mean density of 0.01+/-0.01 ind/m2 (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005). In Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, this species had a density of 0.007+/-0.010 ind./m2, with a relative abundance of 0.118% (Figueroa 2001). Chaetodon humeralis is a common species at Los Islotes, Gulf of California, having an occurrence frequency between 10-30% (Aburto-Oropeza and Balart 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This rocky reef-associated species is usually observed in pairs or small groups in rocky areas near the shore (Allen 1985). In the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panamá this species can be found over all kinds of substrata (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff 2006). According to Rubio (1986), at Gorgona Island, Colombia, this fish is occasional in intertidal pools, frequent over rocky and sandy substrate and abundant in coralline substrata. According to Cooke (1992), C. humeralis may be occasional in middle estuaries, mangroves and bar-formed lagoons along the Eastern Pacfic coast.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is rarely collected for the pet trade.|
There appear to be no major threats to this species. Collection is limited and is not considered to be impacting the global population.The population in the Galapagos Islands was apparently unaffected by the 1997/98 El Niño event.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species specific conservation measures in place, however its range includes marine protected areas.|
Aburto-Oropeza, O. and Balart, E.F. 2001. Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California. Marine Ecology 22(4): 283-305.
Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.
Allen, G.R. 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle.
Burgess, W.E. 1978. Butterflyfishes of the world. A monograph of the Family Chaetodontidae. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
Cooke, R. 1992. Prehistoric nearshore and littoral fishing in the eastern tropical pacific: an icthyological evaluation. Journal of World Prehistory 6(1): 1-49.
Dominici-Arosemena, A. and Wolff, M. 2006. Reef fish community structure in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panamá): living on a relatively stable rocky reef environment. Helgoland Marine Research 60: 287-305.
Dominici-Arosemena, A., Brugnoli-Olivera, E., Cortés Núñez, J., Molina-Urena, H. and Quesada-Alpizar, M. 2005. Community structure of eastern Pacific reef fishes (Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica). Tecnociencia 7(2): 19-41.
Edgar, G.J., Banks, S., Farina, J.M., Calvopina, M. and Martínez, C. 2004. Regional biogreography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago. Journal of Biogeography 31: 1107-1124.
Figueroa, R.R. 2001. Caracterización de la ictiofauna de los sustratos duros de la parte interna del Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica.
Fischer, W., Krupp, F., Schneider, W., Sommer, C., Carpenter, K.E. and Niem, V.H. 1995. Guía FAO para la identificación para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico centro-oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1. Guía Pesca Pacifico Centro Oriental: 647–1200.
Grove, J.S. and Lavenberg, R.J. 1997. The fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, USA.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Rubio, E.A. 1986. Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla Gorgona, Pacífico colombiano. Boletín Ecotrópica 13: 86-112.
|Citation:||Rocha, L.A., Pyle, R., Myers, R., Craig, M.T., Allen, G., Robertson, R., Lea, B., Rivera, F., Zapata, F., Barraza, E., Merlen, G. & Edgar, G. 2010. Chaetodon humeralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 July 2014.|
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