Bacopa monnieri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae

Scientific Name: Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Water Hyssop

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-04-23
Assessor(s): Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A.
Reviewer(s): Ravikumar, K., Narasimhan, D., Juffe Bignoli, D. & García, N.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Rhazi, L., Grillas, P., Rhazi, M., Flanagan, D. & Rehel, S.

This species is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Bacopa monnieri is distributed in tropics and subtropics of the world: in Sri Lanka, India, NepalChina, Taiwan, Viet Nam and Pakistan. It is also found in Florida, Hawaii and southern states of USA and the Meditearranean Basin.

In India it is found in Andaman, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. 

In the Arabian Peninsula, this species has been recorded from Bahrain, Kuwait, northern and southern Oman, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Yemen including Socotra. It occurs throughout the southern and western Peninsula.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bahrain; Barbados; Belize; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Cambodia; Chile; China; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal); Indonesia; Jamaica; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Martinique; Mexico; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Lucia; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; United Arab Emirates; United States (Florida, Hawaiian Is.); Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


There is no information available on population trends in this species. However, the populations are generally healthy and the species is widespread.

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Bacopa monnieri is a perennial or sometimes annual. It grows gregariously and often forms dense mats in marshy places, the banks of pools and along streams and ditches. It can tolerate brackish water. It is mostly found in rice fields. Propagation is often achieved through cuttings. Bacopa monnieri  is known to grow under varying soil and climatic conditions. The plant performs exceptionally well in poorly drained soils and waterlogged areas under subtropical conditions.

In the Arabian Peninsula, this species is described as fringing mountain pools and some wadis. If the water supply is continuous, it often colonizes small irrigated fields beneath date palms (Western 1989). In Oman, it is often found in wet, damp or moist places, sometimes inundated with changing water level, by streams, wadis, and pools.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Bacopa monnieri has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for centuries. It is used in the treatment of a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety, intellect and poor memory. Traditionally, it was used as a brain tonic to enhance memory development, learning, and concentration. It is also sold for aquaria.

There is no evidence that this species is used in the Arabian Peninsula.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

On the Arabian Peninsula, there are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no conservation measures in place and none needed.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture

Bibliography [top]

Al Khulaidi, A.W. 2004. Flora of Yemen.

Cook, C.D.K. 1996. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of India. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Miller, A.G. and Morris, M. 2004. Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Western, A.R. 1989. The flora of the United Arab Emirates: An introduction. United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain.

Citation: Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A. 2013. Bacopa monnieri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T164168A17722668. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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