|Scientific Name:||Temera hardwickii|
|Species Authority:||Gray, 1831|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A4d ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Carvalho, M.R. de, McCord, M.E. & Vidthayanon, C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Fowler, S.L. & Valenti, S.V. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Temera hardwickii is a small electric ray that is caught by inshore and offshore mixed species fisheries and exposed to heavy historic, current and ongoing fishing pressure throughout its range. It occurs from the southern Thai-Myanmar border through the Straits of Malacca and the Malay Peninsula to Singapore and Vietnam. Inshore and offshore mixed species trawl and possibly other demersal fisheries operate throughout its range. Landed frequently as utilized bycatch in the Phuket market from Burmese trawl fisheries, although rare in western collections. Likely discarded at sea in most fisheries, however estimated rate of survivorship is very low. Fecundity appears to be low with one pregnant female containing only four embryos. Observations also suggest that electric ray species are less common now than previously. It is suspected that declines of 30% or more have already occurred as a result of the high level of continuing exploitation within its known range, although species specific data are not available. Surveys and careful monitoring of catches is required in the future due to the high level of exploitation within its range.
|Range Description:||Western central Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean: southern Thai-Myanmar border through the Straits of Malacca and the Malay Peninsula to Singapore and Vietnam, including Thailand (Compagno 1999).|
Native:Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Unknown. Apparently rare off Thailand (C. Vidthyanon pers. obs. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Found on soft substrates in inshore and offshore waters. The biology is little known, however one female was caught with four foetuses (Compagno 1999). Females are thought to mature at 11–12 cm TL and males at about 11 cm TL (Compagno 1999). Maximum total length is approximately 18 cm TL, although most specimens caught are below 15 cm TL (Compagno 1999).|
|Major Threat(s):||Inshore and offshore mixed species trawl and possibly other demersal fisheries operate throughout its range. Batoids are heavily exploited in the Andaman Sea, where intensive trawl fisheries operate on the western coast of Thailand (Simpfendorfer et al. 2005). Probably not all bycatch of this species is landed, but survival of discards will presumably be very poor. Landed frequently as utilized bycatch in the Phuket market from Myanmar trawl fisheries, although rare in western collections. Although no specific data are available on the capture of this species, intensive trawl fisheries operate throughout its known geographic range. Electric ray species appear to be generally less common now than previously off Thailand (C. Vidthyanon pers. obs. 2007).|
|Conservation Actions:||None known to be in place. Fishery management, including National Shark Plans, and trawl fishery exclusion zones could contribute towards the conservation of this and other benthic species.|
Compagno, L.J.V. 1999. Batoid fishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes.The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae), pp. 1397-1529. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
Simpfendorfer, C.A., Cavanagh, R.D., Tanaka, S. and Ishihara, H. 2005.. Northwest Pacific. In: In: Fowler, S. L., Cavanagh, R. D., Camhi, M., Burgess, G. H., Cailliet, G. M., Fordham, S. V., Simpfendorfer, C. A. and Musick, J. A. (eds), (eds), Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes., pp. 150-161.. IUCN/ SSC Shark Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Carvalho, M.R. de, McCord, M.E. & Vidthayanon, C. 2009. Temera hardwickii. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 March 2014.|
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