|Scientific Name:||Pangasius sanitwongsei|
|Species Authority:||Smith, 1931|
Pangasius beani Smith, 1931
Pangasius sanitwangsei Smith, 1931
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2acd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F. & Tan, H.H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)|
There are ongoing threats to P. sanitwongsei, including harvesting, and alteration of the river for dams and increased shipping.
Assessed as Critically Endangered due to an estimated population decline of more than 99% over three generations, even using the most optimistic values for generation time and population size (assuming a constant exponential rate). This rate has been inferred for the whole population given that the same threats exist throughout the range of P. sanitwongsei.
|Range Description:||The species is known from the Chao Phraya and Mekong basins in Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam.|
Native:Cambodia; China (Yunnan); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Two sub-populations may be separated by the Khone Falls, over which P. sanitwongsei does not appear to migrate (Poulsen 2001).
Local fishermen report declines in sightings/catch of P. sanitwongsei; one interviewee said that P. sanitwongsei had disappeared from his catch, while another (ex-chair of the Giant Catfish Fishermens Club) said that 'fifteen years ago 100 P. sanitwongsei were caught per year…five years ago about 5-20 fish were caught per year…recently the catch has declined further and the fish has disappeared' (Meynell 2003).
Generation time is not known, but that of the closely related Pangasianodon gigas is estimated at 10-15 years.
|Habitat and Ecology:||P. sanitwongsei is a benthopelagic, potamodromous species which inhabits large rivers surrounded by rainforest. P. sanitwongsei uses deep pools as refuges in the dry season.|
|Use and Trade:||No captive breeding known, therefore 100% wild harvest assumed.|
Overfishing for food and to a lesser extent the aquarium trade, has depleted the natural population of P. sanitwongsei (Wang 1998).
This species is likely to have been affected by the destruction of rapids and reefs as part of the Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement Project, and by the construction of dams. Projects such as these affect the natural flood/drought cycles throughout the river, and therefore the migratory behaviour of fish such as P. sanitwongsei.
|Conservation Actions:||In 1989 P. sanitwongsei was listed as a Class II protected species by the provincial government of Yunnan, China.|
Aloun, P. 2006. Fishes of Laos.
Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes., Washington D.C., USA.
Anon. 2002. Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, New York, USA.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (editors and compilers). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Baird, I.G., Inthaphaisy, V., Kisouvannalath, P., Phylavanh, B. and Mounsouphom, B. 1999. The fishes of southern Lao. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao PDR.
Cambodian National Mekong Committee. 1998. Natural resources-based development strategy for the Tonlé Sap area, Cambodia. Final report: Sectoral Studies. CMB/95/003.
Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen., Unpublished.
Chuenpagdee, R. 2002. Checklist of Thai names and scripts..
Davidson, A. 1975. Fish and fish dishes of Laos..
FiCen. 2005. Common freshwater fishes of Vietnam. Fisheries Information Center of Vietnam (FiCen).
Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at: www.fishbase.org.
Gudger, E.W. 1945. The giant freshwater fishes of Asia. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 45(3): 1-17.
Hill, M.T. and Hill, S.A. 1994. Fisheries ecology and hydropower in the lower Mekong River: an evaluation of run-of-the-river projects. Mekong Secretariat, Bangkok, Thailand.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hureau, J.-C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. Atlas Preliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France, pp. 225-227. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). 1994. 1994 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
Khoa, T.T. and Huong, T.T.T. 1993. Dinh Loai Cá Nuóc Ngot Vùng Dông Bang Sông Cuu Long.
Kottelat, M. 1985. Fresh-water fishes of Kampuchea. Hydrobiologia 121: 249-279.
Kottelat, M. 2000. Notes on the taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution of some fishes of Laos. Journal of South Asian Natural History 5(1): 83-90.
Kottelat, M. 2001. Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications Ltd, Colombo 5, Sri Lanka.
Kuronuma, K. 1961. A check list of fishes of Vietnam. United States Consultants, Inc.; International Coo.
Meynell, P.J. 2003. Scoping Study for Biodiversity Assessment of the Mekong River in Northern Laos and Thailand. IUCN Mekong Water and Nature Initiative and Mekong Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme, Bangkok.
Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency. 1969. Sambor Project Report. Lower Mekong River Basin. vol. 6. Fishery. Supplementary Material to Volume 1. Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency, Japan.
Poulsen, A.F. 2001. Integration of fishers knowledge into research on a large tropical river basin, the Mekong River in Southweast Asia. In: Haagan, N., C. Brignall and L. Woods (eds), Putting Fishers Knowledge to Work 11 (1): 198-207.
Rainboth, W.J. 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong.
Riede, K. 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany.
Roberts, T.R. 1993. Artisanal fisheries and fish ecology below the great waterfalls of the Mekong River in southern Laos. The Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 41: 31-62.
Roberts, T.R. and Baird, I.G. 1995. Traditional fisheries and fish ecology on the Mekong River at Khone waterfalls in southern Laos. The Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 43: 219-262.
Roberts, T.R. and Vidthayanon, C. 1991. Systematic revision of the Asian catfish family Pangasiidae, with biological observations and descriptions of three new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 143: 97-144.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada..
Sidthimunka, A. 1970. A report on the fisheries survey of the Mekong River in the vicinity of the Pa Mong Dam site. Inland Fisheries Division, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand.
Smith, H.M. 1945. The fresh-water fishes of Siam, or Thailand. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 188: 633.
Sokheng, C., Chhea, C.K., Viravong, S., Bouakhamvongsa, K., Suntornratana, U., Yoorong, N., Tung, N.T., Bao, T.Q., Poulsen, A.F. and Jørgensen, J.V. 1999. Fish migrations and spawning habits in the Mekong mainstream: a survey using local knowledge (basin-wide). Assessment of Mekong fisheries: Fish Migrations an. Assessment of Mekong fisheries: Fish Migrations and Spawning and the Impact of Water Management Project (AMFC). AMFP Report 2/99., Vientiane, Lao, P.D.R.
Suvatti, C. 1981. Fishes of Thailand. Royal Institute of Thailand, Bangkok.
Taki, Y. 1974. Fishes of the Lao Mekong Basin. United States Agency for International Development.
Taki, Y. 1978. An analytical study of the fish fauna of the Mekong basin as a biological production system in nature. Tokyo, Japan.
Varjo, M., Koli, L. and Dahlström, H. 2004. Kalannimiluettelo (versio 10/03). Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.
Vidthayanon, C., Karnasuta, J. and Nabhitabhata, J. 1997. Diversity of freshwater fishes in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Thailand.
Wang, S. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals. Pisces. National Environmental Protection Agency.
Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.
|Citation:||Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F. & Tan, H.H. 2009. Pangasius sanitwongsei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|