Nyctimene rabori


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Nyctimene rabori
Species Authority: Heaney & Peterson, 1984
Common Name(s):
English Philippine Tube-nosed Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Ong, P., Rosell-Ambal, G. & Tabaranza, B. & Heaney, L., Ingle, N., Cariño, A.B., Pangulatan, L.M., Pedregosa, M., Alcala, E. & Helgen, K.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
N. rabori is listed as Endangered because its population size is estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, there is an observed continuing decline in the number of mature individuals, and no subpopulation contains more than 250 mature individuals.
1996 Critically Endangered (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The tube-nosed fruit bat is endemic to the Philippines, where it is restricted to the islands of Cebu (Vinciguerra and Muller 1993), Negros and Sibuyan; it might also occur in Panay, although there has been a lack of sampling there to confirm this (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2006). It has also been recorded from Karakelong in the Talaud Islands (Indonesia), and on Siao and Greater Sangihe in the Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) (K. Helgen pers. comm.), but these records represent tentative identifications. The elevational range is from sea level to 1,300 m asl. On Negros, it has been recorded from 200 to 1,300 m asl.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The tube-nosed fruit bat has been collected (mist-netted) infrequently on Cebu and Negros. It might be less common in degraded habitat than in old growth forest, but it does seem to be able to persist in degraded areas (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2007). It is more widespread on Negros and Cebu than previously suspected (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2007). On Negros, where it had been known only from a population on the southern part of the island, surveys have located 30 individuals at eight sites between 1998 and 2004 (Carino 2004). During survey, the highest number of individuals of N. rabori was recorded in Ban-ban, Ayungon municipality, with a total capture of nine individuals during 26 Mar to 10 Apr 1999 (Cariño 2004). Mount Siburan (Sibuyan Island) may have numbers of the tube-nosed fruit bats in the high hundreds, Negros may have low thousands of individuals and Cebu may have numbers in the low hundreds, where the population of that island has been found only in five small sites (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2007). The number of mature individuals could be less than 2,500.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found in or adjacent to forest (sea level to 1,300 m), in both primary and secondary forest (Vinciguerra and Muller 1993). N. rabori was previously thought to be confined to high-quality forest, but it is tolerant to a wider range of habitats than previously suspected, having been recorded from degraded habitats on Negros, and persisting in very degraded habitats on Cebu. During recent collections, the species has tended to be found near bodies of water.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation is a major threat, and has been severe across much of the range of N. rabori, although the rate has slowed due to the fact that there is little remaining primary forest. Most of the lowland forest habitat, which is the most suitable for the species, has been destroyed in two out of the three islands on which the species is known to occur. Although it has recently been recorded from some areas of secondary forest, the remaining populations are under intense pressure since very little forest remains and there is a continuing decline in area and quality of this forest. Hunting is not suspected to be a threat as, according to surveys, local people are unfamiliar with this tube-nosed fruit bat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Surveys are needed over a wider part of the potential range of N. rabori to more acurately determine the status of its population, and to determine whether it occurs on Panay. It is known to occur in North Negros Forest Reserve (Tamblyn et al. 2005). More adequate conservation measures are needed at known sites.

Bibliography [top]

Cariño, A. B. 2004. Studies of fruit bats on Negros Island, Philippines. Siliman Journal 45: 137-159.

Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Tamblyn, A., Turner, C., Turner, A. and Raines, P. 2005. A comparative study of the habitats of the Upper Imbang-Caliban Watershed, North Negros Forest Reserve, Negros Occidental, Philippines. Negros Forest and Ecological Foundation, Inc., Coral Cay Conservation, London, UK.

Vinciguerra, L. B. and Muller, R. A. 1993. Neue Erkenntnisse uber die Verbreitung des Rohrennasen Flughunds Nyctimene rabori Heaney and Peterson, 1984 auf den Philippinen (Mammalia: Pteropodidae). Jahrbuch des Naturhistorischen Museums Bern 11: 125-129.

Citation: Ong, P., Rosell-Ambal, G. & Tabaranza, B. & Heaney, L., Ingle, N., Cariño, A.B., Pangulatan, L.M., Pedregosa, M., Alcala, E. & Helgen, K. 2008. Nyctimene rabori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 30 March 2015.
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