|Scientific Name:||Nyctalus noctula|
|Species Authority:||(Schreber, 1774)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Nyctalus furvus (Japan) and N. plancyi (eastern China and Taiwan) are now considered as separate species (Simmons 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Csorba, G., Bates, P., Stubbe, M., Hutson, A.M., Aulagnier, S. & Spitzenberger, F.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
The species is widespread and abundant, and although there may have been declines in some areas, it is not believed that these approach the threshold for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (30% in 10 years or 3 generations). Consequently it is assessed as Least Concern.
Nyctalus noctula has a wide Palaearctic distribution, including Europe and southern Scandinavia to the Urals and Caucasus; Turkey to Israel and Oman; western Turkmenistan, western Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan to south-west Siberia and the Himalayas, south to Myanmar, Viet Nam, and western Malaysia. Its occurrence in North Africa is questionable (see below), and a record from Mozambique is considered dubious. With few exceptions, maternity colonies are confined to northeastern Europe (Strelkov 1997a, 1997b). Has been found at 1,900 m asl in the western Alps during migration (Aellen 1962 in Gebhard and Bogdanowicz 2004).
"It is possible that N. noctula occurs in Africa but this needs confirmation. A record from Algeria (two specimens collected from a hollow tree in Cheliff plain) was published by Loche (1858), but these specimens were lost with the rest of Loche's collection. According to Palmeirim (1982), it is possible that these specimens belonged to N. lasiopterus, a species which does occur in North Africa and which was considered to be conspecific with N. noctula by earlier zoologists. There are also some doubts as to the place of origin of some specimens of N. noctula in the BMNH (Palmeirim 1982) and in the RMNH (Jentink 1888). One of these was mentioned by Dobson (1878) as having been bought in Algiers. Kowalski and Rzebik-Kowalska (1991) suggest that all of them were bought from professional dealers, which means that their localities may be unreliable" (M. Happold pers. comm. 2007).
Native:Albania; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Holy See (Vatican City State); Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malaysia; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A widespread species, relatively common throughout much of its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It forages over wetland, woodland and pasture, feeding on larger moths, beetles and flies. Summer colonies are in tree holes, sometimes in buildings. Winter hibernacula are in rock crevices, caves, occasionally artificial structures. Maternity colonies number 20-50 females (occasinally up to 100), but winter groups in rock crevices, caves and artificial structures can be large, to 10,000 in one instance (Germany) (Harrje 1994, Mayer et al. 2002). Tree holes and bat boxes are also used as wintering sites. Seasonal migrations between breeding area and hibernation range which is situated in central and southwest Europe normally cover distances of less than 1,000 km. The longest recorded movements is 1,546 km (Hutterer et al. 2005).|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats at present.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention, in parts of its range where these apply. It is included in Annex IV of EU Habitats and Species Directive, and there is some habitat protection through Natura 2000. The species occurs in a number of protected areas. No specific conservation actions are known.|
Bogdanowicz, W. 1999. Nyctalus noctula. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík, and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.
Dobson, G. E. 1878. Catalogue of the Chiroptera in the British Museum. pp. 567 pp.. Trustees of the British Museum, London, UK.
Gebhard, J. and Bogdanowicz, W. 2004. Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774) – Großer Abensegler. In: F. Krapp (ed.), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, pp. 607-694.
Harrje, C. 1994. Fledermaus-Massenwinterquartier in der Levensauer Kanalhochbrücke bei Kiel. Nyctalus 5: 274-276.
Hayman, R. W. and Hill, J. E. 1971. Order Chiroptera. In: J. Meester and H. W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 73. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.
Jentink, F. A. 1888. Catalogue Systématique des Mammifères (Rongeurs, Insectivores, Cheiroptères, Édentés et Marsupiaux). In: H. Schlegel and F. A. Jentink (eds), Revue Méthodique et Critique des Collections, E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Kowalski, K. and Rzebik-Kowalska, B. 1991. Mammals of Algeria. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
Loche, C. 1858. Mammifères. Paris, France.
Mayer, F., Petit, E. and Helversen, O. 2002. Genetische Strukturierung von Populationen des Abendseglers (Nyctalus noctula) in Europa. In: A. Meschede, K. G., Heller and P. Boye (eds), Ökologie, Wanderungen und Genetik von Fledermäusen in Wäldern - Untersuchungen als Grundlage für den Fledermausschutz.- Schriftenr, pp. 267-278. Landschaftspfl. U, Naturschutz, Münster, Germany.
Palmeirim, J. M. 1982. On the presence of Nyctalus lasiopterus in North Africa (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Mammalia 46: 401-403.
Samiya R., Dawaa, N., Stubbe, M., Stubbe, A., Haideke, D., Sumiya, D. and Munkhtogtokh, O. 1993. New Findings of Mammals in Western Mongolia. Natural Conditions and Biological Resources in Western Mongol, and its adjacent countries. Review of Report.
Schober, W. and Grimmberger, E. 1998. Die Fledermause Europas. Kosmos Naturfuhrer, Stuttgart.
Spitzenberger F. 2002. Die Säugetierfauna Österreichs. Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Band.
Strelkov, P. P. 1969. Migratory and stationary bats (Chiroptera) of the European part of the Soviet Union. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 14: 393-439.
Strelkov, P. P. 1997. Breeding area and its position in range of migratory bat species (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in East Europa and adjacent countries. Communication 1. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 76: 1073-1082.
Strelkov, P. P. 1997. Breeding area and its position in range of migratory bat species (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in East Europa and adjacent countries. Communication 2. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 78: 1381-1390.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
|Citation:||Csorba, G., Bates, P., Stubbe, M., Hutson, A.M., Aulagnier, S. & Spitzenberger, F. 2008. Nyctalus noctula. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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