|Scientific Name:||Myotis capaccinii|
|Species Authority:||(Bonaparte, 1837)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Most recent authors consider M. capaccinii as a monotypic species (Spitzenberger and von Helversen 2001).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A4bce ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Juste, J., Karataş, A., Palmeirim, J. & Paunović, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
The species occupies specialised habitat (caves and associated water systems). In the eastern part of the range it congregates in winter in a few sites which are threatened by human disturbance. It has declined between 30 and 50% in Spain in the last 10 years, and there are indications of declines in other parts of the range. It only hunts in watercourses and is therefore threatened by water pollution and the development of tourist infrastructure, which is expected to continue in the future. It is suspected that population declines are underway that will exceed 30% over 18 years (3 generations), and for that reason the species is considered Vulnerable under criterion A4bce.
|Range Description:||Myotis capaccinii is sparsely distributed from eastern Iberia, Spain through the northern Mediterranean to coastal Asia Minor and Israel, Lebanon and Jordan, and also in Mesopotamia from Turkey to Iran and in north-west Africa (limited to the Mediterranean fringe of western Maghreb: north Morocco and northwest Algeria). It occurs from sea level to 900 m.|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; France (Corsica); Greece (Kriti); Holy See (Vatican City State); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Lebanon; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Morocco; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares); Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Locally it can be abundant. Generally, the population is fragmented, but these "fragments" may constitute robust parts of the overall population. Declines have been reported in many range states. In Spain, the population has declined by 30-50% in the last 10 years to fewer than 10,000 individuals. Only 30 colonies are known that comprise more than 20 individuals (Palomo and Gisbert 2002). At least six important colonies are threatened by the construction of buildings nearby and five colonies have disappeared over the last 10 years. In France the population has declined to very low numbers (an estimated 3,800 individuals). Colonies have been lost in the western part of the range in the last 15 years (S. Aulagnier pers. comm. 2006). Colonies in central Romania known from the 1960s have disappeared, and the species is now restricted to the south. The species is almost absent in winter and probably hibernates in Bulgaria (Z. Nagy pers. comm. 2006). The Bulgarian population is estimated at c.20,000. In Croatia there are still some large colonies but these are threatened by pollution of karstic water bodies (F. Spitzenberger pers. comm. 2006), and the species is listed as Endangered in the Croatian Red Book of Mammals (Tvrtkovic 2006). In Turkey it has a decreasing population and is considered vulnerable; it is most often encountered in small groups, very occasionally up to several hundred individuals (A. Karatas pers. comm. 2005). The species is naturally rare in Iran (M. Sharifi pers. comm. 2005) and north Africa (S. Aulagnier pers. comm. 2006). The size of colonies is smaller in the western part of the range (several hundreds of individuals in summer) than in the eastern part (up to several thousands in winter).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It forages over wetlands and waterways (including artifical waterbodies, such as canals and reservoirs), also scrub. It generally roosts in underground habitats (principally caves). In the Balkans it is confined to karst areas. Movements between summer and winter colonies are mostly within a distance of 50 km (maximum 140 km: Hutterer et al. 2005).|
|Major Threat(s):||Threats include changes in water quality through pollution and dam building, and loss of water bodies and watercourses. Damage or disturbance to caves (tourism, fires and vandalism) used as roosts may also be a problem, as the species is very dependent on caves. The species is collected for medicinal purposes in North Africa.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention in the range states where these apply. It is included in Annex II (and (IV) of EU Habitats and Species Directive, and hence requires special measures for conservation including designation of Special Areas for Conservation. Some habitat protection through Natura 2000. In Spain, fences are in place to protect several known colonies. Measures needed include protection of colonies (these measures should avoid the blocking of any cave entrances with gates and control of tourist access) and improvement of water quality.|
Aualgnier. 2005. Mammals of Africa in press.
Spitzenberger, F. and von Helversen, O. 2001. Myotis capaccinii (Bonaparte, 1837) - Langfußfledermaus. In: F. Krapp (ed.), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 4: Fledertiere. Teil I: Chiroptera I, pp. 281-302. Aula-Verlag,, Wiebelsheim.
Tvrtković, N. 2006. Crvena knjiga sisavaca Hrvatske. Ministry of Culture, State Ministry of Nature Protection, Zagreb.
|Citation:||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Juste, J., Karataş, A., Palmeirim, J. & Paunović, M. 2008. Myotis capaccinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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