|Scientific Name:||Eumops floridanus|
|Species Authority:||G.M. Allen, 1932|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Eger (1977) revised the genus and recognized E. g. floridanus (Allen 1932) in Florida and E. g. glaucinus in Cuba, Jamaica, Central America, and South America. Timm and Genoways (2004) examined range-wide geographic variation in morphology and concluded that Eumops floridanus should be recognized as a distinct species. Simmons (2005) included floridanus as a subspecies of E. glaucinus, but Timm and Genoways (2004) was published too late for review by Simmons, who did state that E. glaucinus (including floridanus) may include more than one species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Timm, R. & Arroyo-Cabrales, J.|
Listed as Vulnerable because its population size is estimated to number from the low hundreds to the low thousands (well below 10,000) individuals, in just a few counties in southern Florida (United States), with no subpopulation greater than 1,000 individuals, and a continuing decline inferred from the natural and human-induced changes (loss of appropriate roosting sites as well as by the use of pesticides) (FWC 2013). Estimates of population size are relative and largely based upon expert opinions and inferences from available data. Due to the uncertainty data on the population size, there is no evidence to suggest there are less than 2,500 mature individuals to list the species as Endangered. More data and population monitoring are required for this species, and a reassessment is recommended as soon as additional information becomes available.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The range encompasses southern Florida, including Charlotte, Collier, and Lee counties on the Gulf Coast and Miami-Dade County on the Atlantic Coast (Timm and Genoways 2004); the species is known mainly from the Miami, Coral Gables, and Fort Lauderdale areas. According to Timm and Genoways (2004), "In the greater Miami area, only three records exist of the Florida bonneted bat after 1965. The most recent of these are from the 1990s; one is a single recent specimen from Coral Gables and one is an acoustic recording. Additionally, an extant, albeit probably small, population occurs along Florida's southwestern coast in Lee County near Fort Myers and adjacent Collier County in the Fakahatchee-Big Cypress area." Excluding fossil records, Eumops floridanus was first recorded at Miami in 1936. A pregnant female was captured in Coral Gables in 1988, indicating the continued existence of this species in Florida after an earlier survey concluded that the subspecies probably was extinct (Belwood 1992). Ted Fleming (pers. comm., 1994, 1995) obtained anecdotal acoustic evidence of the bat's continued existence in the Miami area between 1989 and 1993, and he also found evidence of an early 1990s occurrence in the George Merrick House in Coral Gables. This bat was found in 1979 near Punta Gorda, Charlotte County, on the western coast of Florida (8 individuals, including a pregnant female); the roost was destroyed as part of a highway construction project (Belwood 1992).|
Native:United States (Florida)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by very few occurrences or subpopulations. All of the known occurrences are relatively small and probably of less than optimal viability, yet they probably have a good probability of persistence for the foreseeable future. This species has appeared to exist in low numbers for several decades (Timm and Genoways 2004). Total adult population size is unknown, but is estimated to be in the lower thousands (less than 10,000). The species appears to be rare but may be more numerous than historical evidence indicates (USFWS 1996). It roosts singly or in small groups.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Once believed to be common on Florida's eastern coast in the Miami-Coral Gables area but reported there only a few times since the mid-1960s. One of the few occurrences in southwestern Florida was destroyed. Low fecundity (only one young at a time). This bat occurs in urban, suburban, and forested areas; it roosts in buildings (e.g., in attics, rock or brick chimneys of fireplaces, and especially under Spanish roof tiles, often in buildings dating from about 1920-1930), sometimes in tree hollows (including those made by woodpeckers), occasionally in foliage of palm trees (e.g., shafts of Royal Palm leaves); also has been found under rocks, in fissures in limestone outcrops, and near excavations (Layne 1978, Timm and Genoways 2004). The species is known primarily from suburbs, also (on the west coast) from a pine flatwoods community where several were found in a Longleaf Pine in a cavity 4.6 meters above ground; the cavity had been excavated by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers and enlarged by a Pileated Woodpecker (Belwood 1992); this tree was later cut down in conjunction with road construction. In the early 2000s, a colony consisting of at least one male and several females took up residence in a bat house in a North Fort Myers (Lee County) suburban backyard (Organization for Bat Conservation).|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Vulnerable to habitat loss (in urban and forested areas), habitat alteration (removal of old trees with cavities, or buildings with spaces suitable for roosting), and pesticide spraying for mosquitoes. The last may be responsible for the species' decline in the Miami area, as roosting sites are still abundant. Severe hurricanes may cause loss of older trees with roosting cavities. Hurricane Andrew, an intense Category 5 hurricane that struck southeastern Florida in 1992, may have had a significant impact upon the already low population of bonneted bats (Timm and Genoways 2004).|
|Conservation Actions:||Search for roosting sites and associated foraging areas; employ acoustic equipment capable of detecting Eumops; identification of roosting places using "eco-dogs". Every effort must be made to protect existing roosts and their surrounding habitats. Carefully consider impacts due to habitat restoration including prescribed burns and changes in hydrology and proposed development. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has listed this species as endangered (2014).|
Belwood, J.J. 1992. Florida mastiff bat, Eumops glaucinus floridanus. In: S.R. Humphrey (ed.), Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Mammals, pp. 216-223. University Press of Florida, Gainsville, FL, USA.
Eger, J.L. 1977. Systematics of the genus Eumops (Chiroptera:Molossidae). Life Sciences Contributions, Royal Ontario Museum 110: 1-69.
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2013. A Species Action Plan for the Florida Bonneted Bat Eumops floridanus. Tallahassee, Florida.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Layne, J.N. (ed.). 1978. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 1. Mammals. pp. 52 pp.. State of Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission.
Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Timm, R.M. and Genoways, H.H. 2004. The Florida bonneted bat, Eumops floridanus (Chiroptera: Molossidae): distribution, morphometrics, systematics, and ecology. Journal of Mammalogy 85: 852-865.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 1996. Endangered and threatened species; notice of reclassification of 96 candidate taxa, proposed rules. 50 CFR Part 17.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Kittlitz's Murrelet as an Endangered or Threatened Species. Federal Register: 61763 -61801.
|Citation:||Solari, S. 2016. Eumops floridanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136433A21984011.Downloaded on 28 August 2016.|
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