|Scientific Name:||Cebus libidinosus|
|Species Authority:||Spix, 1823|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.
Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al. 2004; Rylands et al. 2005).
Groves (2001) listed C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939, from the upper Rio Juruá, is considered by Silva Jr. (2001) to be a junior synonym of C. macrocephalus. C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866, and C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829, listed by Groves (2001) are considered by Silva Jr. to be a junior synonym of C. cay.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Rylands, A.B. & Kierulff, M.C.M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Although the species is currently listed as Least Concern given that it remains widespread, the region in which it occurs is undergoing severe deforestation due to the expanding agricultural frontier (charcoal, soy, etc.) and close monitoring of the population is required.
|Range Description:||Occurs in north-east Brazil in the eastern part of the state of Maranhão, from the basin of the rios Mearim and Itapecuru, through Piaui, Ceará, into Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Apagoas. It ranges west of the Rio São Francisco, through the Cerrado or bush savanna, in Tocantins, Goiás, western Minas Gerais and part of western Bahia, and north-eastern Mato Grosso, being replaced by C. apella to the north in transition to the Amazon rain forest and the dry forests of Mato Grosso (Silva Jr., 2001). Silva Jr. (2001) indicates that the right (east) bank of the Rio Araguaia may be the westernmost limits to its range ion the north, with C. apella occurring west from the left bank, and further south, at the headwaters, giving way to C. cay. The southern limit is in the region of the Rio Grande in western Minas Gerais (Triângulo Mineiro). C. nigritus occurs to the south of the Rio Grande (Fragaszy et al. 2004, Rylands et al. 2005).|
Native:Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Tocantins)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no population desnity estimates available.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Dry, deciduous forest open, forest and scrub of the Caatinga of north-east Brazil, gallery forest and dry forests of the cerrado (bush savanna) of Central Brazil.
Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers (see Izawa 1979; Fernandes 1991). Group sizes range from 6 or 7 to 20, with numbers of females exceeding the numbers of males. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Freese and Oppenmheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004).
|Major Threat(s):||This species is hunted in many parts of its range, much of which is open savanna grassland or thorny desert scrub. However, it is wide-ranging, and there is no reason to believe that the species is threatened at the present time. The region over which it occurs is undergoing habitat loss due to the expanding agricultural frontier (charcoal, soy, etc.). Some wild individuals are collected for the pet trade.|
|Conservation Actions:||This is a widespread and adaptable species, which occurs in a number of protected areas where suitable (forest) habitat is available. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
Fragaszy, D. M., Visalberghi, E. and Fedigan, L. 2004. The Complete Capuchin: The Biology of the Genus Cebus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia. Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates) with taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 98: 323–427.
Hershkovitz, P. 1955. Notes on the American monkeys of the genus Cebus. Journal of Mammalogy 36: 449–452.
Rylands, A. B, Kierulff, M. C. M. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2005. Some notes on the taxonomy and distributions of the tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus, Cebidae) of South America. Lundiana 6: 97–110.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 2001. Especiação nos macacos-prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Doctoral Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 2002. Sistemática dos macacos –prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Livro de Resumos, X Congresso Brasieliero de Primatologia: Amazônia – A Última Fronteira: 35. Bélém, Brazil.
|Citation:||Rylands, A.B. & Kierulff, M.C.M. 2008. Cebus libidinosus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 May 2013.|
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