|Scientific Name:||Pleuronectes platessa|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
Platessa latus Cuvier, 1829
Platessa platessa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platessa vulgaris Cloquet, 1826
Pleuronectes borealis Faber, 1828
Pleuronectes latus Cuvier, 1829
Pleuronectes platessa baltica Nilsson, 1855
Pleuronectes platessus Linnaeus, 1758
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
A widespread species which is vulnerable to overfishing in the sea, but this is not currently thought to be causing a decline great enough to qualify the species as threatened.
European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.
|Range Description:||Western Mediterranean and along all European coasts to White and Barents Seas; absent from northern Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas. Regularly reported from freshwaters in Kanin Peninsula (Barents Sea). Occasionally reported from freshwater outside Barents Sea basin, but individuals might be misidentified P. flesus.|
Native:Belgium; Denmark; Faroe Islands; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Guernsey; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy; Jersey; Latvia; Lithuania; Monaco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Russian Federation; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Mud and sand bottom from a few metres down to about 100 m, at sea and in estuaries, rarely entering freshwaters.
Males reproduce for the first time at 2-3 years, females at 3-4. Spawns at sea, in January-June, in deep water, at temperatures around 6°C. Eggs and larvae are pelagic and drift with current. At about 10 mm SL, left eye moves to right side, pigmentation develops, and juveniles switch to benthic life. Juveniles enter freshwater to forage in mid-June in Kanin Peninsula, remaining there until August. Not all individual enter brackish and fresh-water. Adults do not move into brackish or fresh water. Feeds on thin-shelled molluscs and polychaetes.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Kottelat, M. and Freyhof, J. 2007. Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland.
Sakamoto, K. 1984. Interrelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes)..
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2011. Pleuronectes platessa. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 December 2013.|
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