|Scientific Name:||Sinocyclocheilus grahami|
|Species Authority:||(Regan, 1904)|
Barbus grahami Regan, 1904
Percocypris grahami Wu, 1963
Sinocyclocheilus grahami Wu, 1977
|Taxonomic Notes:||Originally Barbus grahami, but changed in 1963 to Percocypris grahami by Wu, and in 1977 to Sinocyclocheilus grahami|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2ce ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.-X.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kullander, F. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority) & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Unit)|
Sinocyclocheilus grahami is endemic to Lake Dianchi (surface area 292.6 km²), Yunnan Province, China. It used to be a very common and important commercial fishery species, but it has undergone a massive population decline from around the mid 1960s and totally disappeared from the lake body in the 1990s. The species was very common and supported a high harvest in the lake before the 1960s; it is now suspected that the population has declined by at least 80% over the past three generations (since 1992; estimated generation length is five years). Scientific surveys, carried out since 1999, have found it only existing in some tributaries and springs. There are four subpopulations known which are separated (severely fragmented) from each other by the polluted lake body. Major threats to the species are introduced species, overfishing and pollution from agriculture and domestic sources which have led to high levels of nutrients and eutrophication in parts of the lake.
|Range Description:||Endemic to Lake Dianchi its tributaries and springs. Now the species is extirpated from the lake itself, and is only known to survive in 20 temple spring ponds, and one lake tributary (Muyang/Lengshui) all within 36 km of the lake shore.|
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||30|
|Number of Locations:||4|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||1874|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2220|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Known from about 20 temple spring ponds, and one lake tributary (Muyang/Lengshui) = four subpopulations. However the temple springs may be connected by small underground karst rivers. There are still a big portion of rivers and reserviors that has not been investigated, so the population size outside of the lake is impossible to estimate.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Clear water usually with indigenous macrophytes such as Ottelia acuminata or Hydrilla verticillata. When water quality in the lake was better it is believed it breeds only in the spring waters. Needs flowing water to breed, laying its eggs on hard substrates (sand to rocks, not mud or silt). Breeds from January to April. In winter it appears to migrate into cave streams. Adults eat shrimp and small fish, and juveniles eat zooplankton. They like water temperature about 20°C.|
|Generation Length (years):||5|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
Its loss from the lake is likely due to introduced fish species, declining water quality, loss of macrophytes (in part due to grass carp), over-fishing, and also breeding sites lost due to siltation and blocked access.
Current threats to the springs are introduced species (especially rainbow trout and red-eared slider turtle); also land use adjacent to springs and modification of spring structure.
No location in a formal protected area, but five of the springs ‘protected’ by Buddhist temples. It is Grade 2 National Protected Species.
The assessors have recommended six of the 20 monitoring spots to a local government agency of Kunming City as key protected sites in Sep, 2007.
Chu, X.-L., Y.-R. Chen. 1989. The fishes of Yunnan, China. Part 1 Cyprinida. Science Press, Beijing.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Regan, C.T. 1904. On a collection of fishes made by Mr. John Graham at Yunnan Fu. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13(75): 190-194.
Wu, H.-W. 1977. The cyprinid fishes of China. Volume 2. People's Press, Shanghai.
|Citation:||Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.-X. 2008. Sinocyclocheilus grahami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T135152A4068202. . Downloaded on 27 June 2016.|
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