|Scientific Name:||Acropora cytherea|
|Species Authority:||(Dana, 1846)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Richards, Z., Delbeek, J.C., Lovell, E., Bass, D., Aeby, G. & Reboton, C.|
|Reviewer(s):||Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)|
The most important known threat for this species is extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats. Specific population trends are unknown but population reduction can be inferred from estimated habitat loss (Wilkinson 2004). It is very widespread and common throughout its range and therefore is likely to be more resilient to habitat loss and reef degradation because of an assumed large effective population size that is highly connected and/or stable with enhanced genetic variability. Therefore, the estimated habitat loss of 20% from reefs already destroyed within its range is the best inference of population reduction since it may survive in coral reefs already at the critical stage of degradation (Wilkinson 2004). This inference of population reduction over three generation lengths (30 years) does not meet the threshold of a threat category and this species is Least Concern. However, because of predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification it will be important to reassess this species in 10 years or sooner, particularly if the species is also observed to disappear from reefs currently at the critical stage of reef degradation.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread, found in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, the south-west and northern Indian Ocean, the central Indo-Pacific, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan and the East China Sea, the oceanic west Pacific, the central Pacific, and the Northwest Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. It is found in Palau (Randall 1995). It is found in Pitcairn (Wallace 1999).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common, and conspicuous.|
This species is the most widespread and abundant of the Acropora species in the Hawaiian Archipelago with its highest densities in this area found in the French Frigate Shoals (Kenyon 1992). In the French Frigate Shoals, it has a patchy distribution with several areas of high abundance (Kenyon et al. 2006). Only two specimens had been recorded in the main Hawaiian Islands until August 2006 when two colonies were observed by divers at Mana Reef, Kauai (Kenyon et al. 2007).
On the outer reef flat of central Vietnam's reefs, A. cytherea is one of two species that dominate in both degree of substrate coverage and size of many circled colonies reaching 3 m across (Latypov 2001).
It was found at 55 sites of 87 sites surveyed in the Marshall Islands (Richards pers. comm.).
There is evidence that overall coral reef habitat has declined, and this is used as a proxy for population decline for this species. This species is more resilient to some of the threats faced by corals and therefore population decline is estimated using the percentage of destroyed reefs only (Wilkinson 2004). We assume that most, if not all, mature individuals will be removed from a destroyed reef and that on average, the number of individuals on reefs are equal across its range and proportional to the percentage of destroyed reefs. Reef losses throughout the species' range have been estimated over three generations, two in the past and one projected into the future.
The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. See the supplementary material for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in shallow, tropical reef environments. It is found on upper reef slopes and lagoons. It is found subtidally on reef slopes and submerged reefs, not usually intertidally (Wallace 1999). |
Populations in the Hawaiian Archipelago become sexually mature during the early summer (Kenyon et al. 2007). Acropora cytherea likely spawns annually in October in French Polynesia (Carroll et al. 2006). This species is found from 3-25 m.
A. cytherea, along with M. aequituberculata, is the dominant coral species on the reef slope of central Vietnam reefs at a depth of 2-6 m (Latypov 2001).
Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover. Three different diseases are recorded for this species (Willis et al. 2005) and three different (total six diseases) found in the northern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006).
Threats include coral removal and harvesting for display in aquariums and for the curio-trade. The total number of corals (live and raw) exported for this species in 2005 was 384.
Acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, has been observed preferentially preying upon corals of the genus Acropora (Colgan 1987). This species is particularly susceptible to crown-of-thorns predation, storm damage, and bleaching (Richards pers. comm.). Crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) (Acanthaster planci) are found throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the Red Sea. These starfish voracious predators of reef-building corals, with a preference for branching and tabular corals such as Acropora species. Populations of the crown-of-thorns starfish have greatly increased since the 1970s and have been known to wipe out large areas of coral reef habitat. Increased breakouts of COTS has become a major threat to some species, and have contributed to the overall decline and reef destruction in the Indo-Pacific region. The effects of such an outbreak include the reduction of abundance and surface cover of living coral, reduction of species diversity and composition, and overall reduction in habitat area.
In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and increased susceptibility to disease, increased severity of ENSO events and storms, and ocean acidification.
Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the GBR were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.
Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.
The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.
All corals are listed on CITES Appendix II. Parts of the species’ range fall within Marine Protected Areas.
Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity.
Having timely access to national-level trade data for CITES analysis reports would be valuable for monitoring trends this species. The species is targeted by collectors for the aquarium trade and fisheries management is required for the species, e.g., MPAs, quotas, size limits, etc. Consideration of the suitability of species for aquaria should also be included as part of fisheries management, and population surveys should be carried out to monitor the effects of harvesting. Recommended conservation measures include population surveys to monitor the effects of collecting for the aquarium trade, especially in Indonesia.
Aeby, G.S., Work, T., Coles, S., and Lewis, T. 2006. Coral Disease Across the Hawaiian Archipelago. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.
Aronson, R.B. and Precht, W.F. 2001b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460: 25-38.
Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D., Sweatman, H., and Melendy, A.M. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5(6): e124.
Carroll, A., Harrison, P., and Adjeroud, M. 2006. Sexual reproduction of Acropora reef corals at Moorea, French Polynesia. Coral Reefs 25: 93-97.
Colgan, M.W. 1987. Coral Reef Recovery on Guam (Micronesia) After Catastrophic Predation by Acanthaster Planci. Ecology 68(6): 1592-1605.
Green, E.P. and Bruckner, A.W. 2000. The significance of coral disease epizootiology for coral reef conservation. Biological Conservation 96: 347-361.
Jacobson, D.M. 2006. Fine Scale Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of a Marshall Islands Coral Disease Outbreak: Evidence for Temperature Forcing. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.
Kenyon, J.C. 1992. Sexual reproduction in Hawaiian Acropora. Coral Reefs 11: 37-43.
Kenyon, J.C., Brainard, R.E., Hoeke R.K., Parrish F.A., and Wilkinson, C.B. 2006. Towed-diver surveys, a method for mesoscale spatial assessment of benthic reef habitat: a case study at Midway Atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Coast Manage 34: 339-349.
Kenyon, J., Godwin, S., Montgomery, A., and Brainard, R. 2007. Rare sighting of Acropora cytherea in the main Hawaiian Islands. Coral Reefs. Coral Reefs 26: 309.
Latypov, Y. Y. 2001. Communities of Coral Reefs of Central Vietnam. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 27(4): 197-200.
Patterson, K.L., Porter, J.W., Ritchie, K.B., Polson, S.W., Mueller E., Peters, E.C., Santavy, D.L., Smith, G.W. 2002. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99: 8725-8730.
Porter, J.W., Dustan, P., Jaap, W.C., Patterson, K.L., Kosmynin, V., Meier, O.W., Patterson, M.E., and Parsons, M. 2001. Patterns of spread of coral disease in the Florida Keys. Hydrobiologia 460(1-3): 1-24.
Pratchett, M.S. 2007. Feeding preferences of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) under controlled conditions of food availability. Pacific Science 61(1): 113-120.
Randall, R. H. 1995. Biogeography of reef-building corals in the Mariana and Palau islands in relation to back-arc rifting and the formation of the eastern Philippine Sea. Nat. Hist. Res. 3: 193-210.
Stimson, J., Sakai, K., and Sembali, H. 2002. Interspecific comparison of the symbiotic relationship in corals with high and low rates of bleacing-induced mortality. Coral reefs 21: 409-421.
Sutherland, K.P., Porter, J.W., and Torres, C. 2004. Disease and immunity in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals. Marine ecology progress series 266: 273-302.
Veron, J.E.N. 2000. Corals of the World. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville.
Wallace, C.C. 1999. Staghorn Corals of the World: a revision of the coral genus Acropora. CSIRO, Collingwood.
Wallace, C.C., Richards, Z., and Suharsono. 2001. Regional distribution patterns of Acropora and their use in the conservation of coral reefs in Indonesia. Pesisir and Lautan 4(1): 1-19.
Weil, E. 2004. Coral reef diseases in the wider Caribbean. In: E. Rosenberg and Y. Loya (eds), Coral Health and Diseases, pp. 35-68. Springer Verlag, NY.
Weil, E. 2006. Coral, Ocotocoral and sponge diversity in the reefs of the Jaragua National Park, Dominican Republic. Rev. Bio. Trop. 54(2): 423-443.
Wilkinson, C. 2004. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
Willis, B., Page, C and Dinsdale, E. 2004. Coral disease on the Great Barrier Reef. In: E. Rosenber and Y. Loya (eds), Coral Health and Disease, pp. 69-104. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Wood, E.M. 1983. Reef Corals of the World: Biology and Field Guide. T.F.H. Publications Inc., Ltd., Hong Kong.
|Citation:||Richards, Z., Delbeek, J.C., Lovell, E., Bass, D., Aeby, G. & Reboton, C. 2008. Acropora cytherea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133313A3684008.Downloaded on 28 July 2017.|