|Scientific Name:||Mesoplodon carlhubbsi|
|Species Authority:||Moore, 1963|
|Taxonomic Notes:||In the past, there was some suggestion that this species may simply be a subspecies of M. bowdoini (and some previous records were erroneously attributed to that species), but recent genetic studies confirm its specific distinctness (Dalebout et al. 1998, 2004).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Taylor, B.L., Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, S.M., Ford, J., Mead, J.G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P. & Pitman, R.L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hammond, P.S. & Perrin, W.F. (Cetacean Red List Authority)|
Global trend or abundance data for this species are unavailable. As a relatively uncommon species it is potentially vulnerable to low-level threats and a 30% global reduction over three generations cannot be ruled out (criterion A).
|Range Description:||Apparently limited to the North Pacific Ocean, Hubbs' beaked whale is known from central British Columbia to southern California in the east, and from Japan (including the Sea of Japan) in the west (Mead 1989; MacLeod et al. 2006). Although the vast majority of records are of strandings, sightings have been made off the coast of Oregon and Washington (Mead et al. 1982, Heyning 1984). This is an oceanic species, and the range is thought to be continuous across the North Pacific, although this is not confirmed (MacLeod et al. 2006).|
Native:Canada; Japan; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no abundance estimates.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Very little is known about the biology of this species (Mead et al. 1982, Heyning 1984; Mead 1989; Pitman 2002), as only a few reliable sightings at sea have been made. Aside from their distribution in the North Pacific, the specific habitat preferences of Hubbs' beaked whales are not known with any certainty. However, like other members of the genus, the species is found in deep oceanic waters (Pitman 2002).
Hubbs' beaked whales feed on squid (including the genera Gonatus, Onychoteuthis, Octopoteuthis, Histioteuthis, and Mastigoteuthis) and some deepwater fishes (Mead et al. 1982).
|Use and Trade:||Whale meat products from this species occasionally appear on the Japanese market.|
Hubbs' beaked whale has occasionally been taken by Japanese whalers in several small cetacean fisheries. Whale meat products from this species are occasionally found for sale on the Japanese market (Dalebout et al. 2001). Incidental catches in drift gillnets occur sporadically off the coast of California.
This species, like other beaked whales, is likely to be vulnerable to loud anthropogenic sounds, such as those generated by navy sonar and seismic exploration (Cox et al. 2006).
Evidence from stranded individuals of several similar species indicates that they have swallowed discarded plastic items, which may eventually lead to death (e.g. Scott et al. 2001); this species may also be at risk.
Predicted impacts of global climate change on the marine environment may affect this species of whale, although the nature of impacts is unclear (Learmonth et al. 2006).
|Conservation Actions:||The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES. Research is needed to determine the impacts of potential threatening processes on this species.|
Balcomb, K. C. and Claridge, D. E. 2001. A mass stranding of cetaceans caused by naval sonar in the Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 8(2): 2-12.
Cox, T. M., Ragen, T. J., Read, A. J., Vos, E., Baird, R. W., Balcomb, K., Barlow, J., Caldwell, J., Cranford, T., Crum, L., D'Amico, A., D'Spain, A., Fernández, J., Finneran, J., Gentry, R., Gerth, W., Gulland, F., Hildebrand, J., Houser, D., Hullar, T., Jepson, P. D., Ketten, D., Macleod, C. D., Miller, P., Moore, S., Mountain, D., Palka, D., Ponganis, P., Rommel, S., Rowles, T., Taylor, B., Tyack, P., Wartzok, D., Gisiner, R., Mead, J. and Benner, L. 2006. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic sound on beaked whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(3): 177-187.
Dalebout, M. L., Baker, C. S., Mead, J. G., Cockcroft, V. G. and Yamada, T. 2004. A comprehensive and validated molecular taxonomy of beaked whales, Family Ziphiidae. Journal of Heredity 95: 459-473.
Dalebout, M. L., Pichler, F. B., Lento, G. M. and Baker, C. S. 2001. Species identification of small cetacean products from Japanese and Korean markets, 1993-1999. Report to the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission.
Dalebout, M. L., Van Helden, A., Van Waerebeek, K. and Baker, C. S. 1998. Molecular genetic identification of southern hermisphere beaked whales (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Molecular Ecology 7: 687-694.
Fernández, A., Edwards, J. F., Rodriguez, F., Espinosa, A., De Los Monteros, Herraez, P., Castro, P., Jaber, J. R., Martin, V. and Arebelo, M. 2005. "Gas and fat embolic syndrome" involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals. Veterinary Pathology 42: 446-457.
Gomercic, H., Gomercic, M. D., Gomericic, T., Lucic, H., Dalebout, M., Galov, A., Skrtic, D., Curkovic, S., Vukovic, S. and Huber, D. 2006. Biological aspects of Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) recorded in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Wildlife Research 52(3): 182-187.
Heyning, J. E. 1984. Functional morphology involved in intraspecific fighting of the beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 1645-1654.
Jepson, P. D., Arebelo, M., Deaville, R., Patterson, I. A. P., Castro, P., Baker, J. R., Degollada, E., Ross, H. M., Herraez, P., Pocknell, A. M., Rodriguez, F., Howie, F. E., Espinosa, A., Reid, R. J., Jaber, J. R., Martin, V., Cunningham, A. A. and Fernandez, A. 2003. Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature 425: 575-576.
Learmonth, J. A., Macleod, C. D., Santos, M. B., Pierce, G. J., Crick, H. Q. P. and Robinson, R. A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.
Macleod, C. D., Perrin, W. F., Pitman, R. L., Barlow, J., Balance, L., D'amico, A., Gerrodette, T., Joyce, G., Mullin, K. D., Palka, D. L. and Waring, G. T. 2006. Known and inferred distributions of beaked whale species (Ziphiidae: Cetacea). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(3): 271-286.
Malakoff, D. 2002. Suit ties whale deaths to research cruise. Science 298: 722-723.
Mead, J. G. 1989. Beaked whales of the genus Mesoplodon. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Vol. 4: River dolphins and the larger toothed whales, pp. 349-430. Academic Press.
Mead, J. G., Walker, W. A. and Houck, W. J. 1982. Biological observations on Mesoplodon carlhubbsi (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 344: 1-25.
Pitman, R. L. 2002. Mesoplodont whales Mesoplodon spp. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 738-742. Academic Press.
Wang, J. Y. and Yang, S. C. 2006. Unusual cetacean stranding events of Taiwan in 2004 and 2005. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8: 283-292.
|Citation:||Taylor, B.L., Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, S.M., Ford, J., Mead, J.G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P. & Pitman, R.L. 2008. Mesoplodon carlhubbsi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.|
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