|Scientific Name:||Mazama chunyi|
|Species Authority:||Hershkovitz, 1959|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Identifying dwarf Andean deer has always been challenging, first dwarf brockets were confused with Pudu mephistophiles until studied by Hershkovitz (1959, 1982), and the relationship among the northern Andean forms (Mazama bricennii and M. rufina), the Peruvian form (M. chunyi) and other lowland dwarf brockets still needs clarification. To date, new specimens and camera trapping photographs from Bolivia (Yensen et al. 1994, Rumiz et al. 2007) and new specimens and photographs from Peru, provide evidence that the southern Andean form is the same as the M. chunyi originally described by Hershkovitz (1959). No subspecies are recognized.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A4c; B2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Rumiz, D.I. & Barrio, J.|
|Reviewer/s:||Black, P. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)|
This species is considered to be Vulnerable due to an ongoing population decline, inferred to be greater than 30%, over a period of 3 generations (14 years) considering both the past (10 years) and future (4 years) estimated from loss of primary habitat. In addition small geographic range (area of occupancy <2,000 km²), severely fragmented populations (<10 locations), and continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat are severely reducing populations.
Criterion A (population reduction):
Threats to this species have not ceased and are not reversible. Population decline occurred in the past and is projected for the future. Habitat destruction has occurred for decades in the range of the dwarf deer. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) has declined in Bolivia and Peru (at least 40% of the expected range in Bolivia somehow degraded due to colonization, deforestation, and burning for agriculture and cattle grazing (see Threats)). An inferred population decline based on habitat reduction suggests assignment to the category of VU A4c.
Criterion B (geographic range size):
Area of occupancy (AOO) based on 60+ record points in Bolivia (with 2x2 km quadrats = 224 km², and with 4x4 km quadrats = 656 km² ) and 49 points in Peru (104 km² or 368 km²) is within the range size of the VU category (500-2,000 km²). Points may be grouped into 5-7 areas in Bolivia and 7-9 in Peru, but include some old collecting / report sites that are now densely settled and degraded. The small number of locations, restricted AOO, and the decline in habitat range support the status of Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||The species is known from southern Peru (Junin, Cuzco, and Puno) and northern Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba). Recent published accounts from Peru only reported its presence in the Cordillera of Vilcabamba (Emmons et al. 2001), in the S of Manu (Pacheco et al. 1993), and in Machu Picchu (ParksWatch 2004). An ongoing survey in Peru has found the species in eleven new localities, within and outside protected areas of the southeastern Andes. Recent surveys in Bolivia found the species in a number of locations within protected areas along the Andes from La Paz to Cochabamba. Extent of occurrence extends for 83,000 km2. Ongoing geographic surveys in Peru (Barrio in prep.) will define more precisely the actual range, but most probably it will not increase significantly its extent of occurrence.|
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no estimates of abundance, population size or subpopulation ranges. Points from Bolivia may be grouped into 5 to 7 locations distributed in Madidi, Apolobamba, Cotapata and Carrasco, and marginally (needing confirmation) in Pilón Lajas, Isiboro Secure and Amboró. Points from Peru can be grouped in 7 to 9 locations distributed in Sandia, Carabaya, Quispicanchi, Paucartambo, Calca, Urubamba, La Convención, and Satipo, but include old collecting / report sites that are currently densely settled and degraded. Several sites of potentially good habitats recently surveyed in Peru showed its presence in most available habitat studied. Current distribution and abundance need to be further assessed. Decreasing population trend is inferred from habitat destruction.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Records from Bolivia include ‘ceja de selva’ elfin forest and grasslands (3,600 m), cloud montane forest ‘Yungas’ forests, and sub Andean forests (1,400 m), although local reports may extend that from 4,000 to 1,000 m (Rumiz et al. 2007). Records from Peru include the same vegetation types as in Bolivia, but without records in grasslands or over 3,500 m (Barrio in prep.). Details on its ecology are unknown, although it seems to be solitary, active at day as well at night, and expected to be a browser frugivore in the forest understorey. Oxalis sp. has been identified among plant species eaten by Mazama chunyi. Nothing is known of reproduction or life in captivity|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat destruction occurs due to small scale cattle ranching and agriculture practiced by local communities through forest cutting and burning of montane grasslands and shrublands. Coca plantations may be the main cause of habitat destruction in some areas of La Paz and Cochabamba in Bolivia, and in Puno and Cuzco in Peru. Mining, road construction and colonization expand habitat loss. Hunting occurs as a source of meat and medicinal products at local level but needs assessment. A grid analysis of the conservation status of habitats within the extent of occurrence estimated in Bolivia suggest that 58,6% of the extent of occurrence is in good and very good status; and 41.4 % suffers degradation (25.5% regular, 15.9 % critical and very critical). On going assessments in Peru (Barrio in prep.) suggest a similar situation.|
|Conservation Actions:||This taxon needs to be locally and regionally recognized as a potentially threatened species; for this, more field surveys, ecological studies and educational and management work with communities focusing on habitat destruction and hunting are needed. Monitoring of use by local communities may yield more specimens and show its contribution to subsistence. Since its distribution range coincides with the Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor, the species may become a symbol or conservation object for this initiative. In Peru, the species can be found in the appropriate habitat in Otishi and Manu National Parks, as well as in Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary. In Bolivia it has been found in six protected areas: Madidi, Apolobamba, Pilón Lajas, Cotapata, Isiboro Secure and Carrasco, but probably also occurs in Amboro.|
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Barrio, J. In prep.. Biogeography of deer in Peru. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida.
Deer Specialist Group. 2004. Specialist Group website.
Emmons, L. H., Luna, L. W. and Romo, L. W. 2001. Mammals of the Northern Vilcabamba Mountain Range, Peru. In: L. E. Alonso, A. Alonso, T. S. Shulenberg and F. Dallmeier (eds), RAP Working Paper # 12, Biological and Social Assessments of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba, Peru. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.
Grimwood, I. R. 1969. Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals. Special Publication Number 21. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection and New York Society, Bronx, New York, USA.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hershkovitz, P. 1959. A new species of South American brocket, genus Mazama (Cervidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 72: 45-54.
Hershkovitz, P. 1982. Neotropical deer (Cervidae) part I, Pudus, Genus Pudu Gray. Fieldiana: Zoology 11: 1-86.
Mace, G. M. and Balmford, A. 2000. Patterns and processes in contemporary mammalian extinction. In: A. Entwhistle and N. Dunstone (eds), Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Biodiversity, pp. 27-52. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Pacheco, V., Patterson, B. D., Patton, J. L., Emmons, L. H., Solari, S. and Ascorra, C. F. 1993. List of mammal species known to occur in Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos 44: 1-12.
ParksWatch. 2004. Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary.
Rumiz, D. I., Pardo, E., Eulert, C., Arispe, R., Wallace, R. B., Gomez, H. and Rios Uzeda, B. 2007. New records an a status assessment of a rare dwarf brocket deer from the montane forests of Bolivia. Journal of Zoology (London) 271: 428-436.
Wemmer, C. 1998. Deer Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Yensen, E., Tarifa, T. and Anderson, S. 1994. New distributional records of some Bolivian mammals. Mammalia 58: 405-413.
|Citation:||Rumiz, D.I. & Barrio, J. 2008. Mazama chunyi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|