Aneides aeneus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae

Scientific Name: Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard, 1881)
Common Name(s):
English Green Salamander
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Geoffrey Hammerson
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is in significant decline (but at a rate of less than 30% over ten years), possibly because of habitat loss, over-harvested, disease, and drought, with a risk that these decline could in future spread to the main range of the species, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species can be found from 140-1,350m asl in the Appalachian region, USA. Its range therefore includes extreme south-western Pennsylvania, extreme western Maryland, and southern Ohio to northern Alabama and extreme north-eastern Mississippi, with a disjunctive area in south-western North Carolina and adjacent South Carolina and Georgia, and additional isolated populations in central Tennessee and north-eastern West Virginia (Conant and Collins 1991). It was recently also recorded in Crawford County, Indiana (Madej 1998).
Countries occurrence:
United States
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is patchily distributed and generally uncommon throughout most of the range (Petranka 1998). The disjunctive Blue Ridge Escarpment populations exhibited dramatic declines in abundance after the early 1970s (Corser 2001). Snyder (1991) reported that these populations appeared to be recovering, but Corser (2001) determined that three out of six populations first discovered in 1991 crashed in 1996-1997. Populations in the main range appear to have remained stable (Snyder 1991).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species can be found in damp (but not wet) crevices in shaded rock outcrops and ledges, or beneath loose bark and in cracks of standing or fallen trees (in cove hardwoods, for example). It can sometimes also be found in or under logs on the ground. It sometimes reaches high population densities in logged areas where the tree canopies are left. Eggs are laid in rock crevices, rotting stumps, or similar dark, damp places.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats to this species that have caused it to decline in some areas are habitat loss (arising from development of the land and watershed areas) and possibly over-collecting and epidemic disease (Corser 2001). Severe drought might exacerbate other threats or cause temporary declines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: To assist its conservation, better information on its current status is needed, as is information on the threats that it faces. The extent to which logging of old growth forest has reduced gene flow among rock outcrop populations should be studied (Petranka 1998), and whenever feasible a forested buffer of at least 100m should be left around occupied rock outcrops (Petranka 1998).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Barbour, R.W. 1971. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Canterbury, R.A. and Pauley, T.K. 1994. Time of mating and egg deposition of West Virginia populations of the salamander Aneides aeneus. Journal of Herpetology: 431-434.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Corser, J.D. 2001. Decline of disjunct green salamander (Aneides aeneus) populations in the southern Appalachians. Biological Conservation: 119-126.

Cupp, P.V., Jr. 1991. Aspects of the life history and ecology of the green salamander, Aneides aeneus, in Kentucky. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science: 171-174.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

Gordon, R.E. 1967. Aneides aeneus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.

Green, N.B. and Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and Reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Hulse, A.C., McCoy, C.J. and Censky, E. 2001. Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Comstock Publishing Associates and Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

Madej, R.F. 1998. Discovery of green salamanders in Indiana and a distributional survey. In: Lannoo, M.J. (ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians, pp. 55–60. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.

Minton Jr, S.A. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science Monographs 3, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama.

Petranka, J.W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Pfingsten, R.A. and Downs, F.L. 1989. Salamanders of Ohio. Bulletin of Ohio Biological Survey: 1-315.

Redmond, W.H. and Scott, A.F. 1996. Atlas of Amphibians in Tennessee (Miscellaneous Publication Number 12). The Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State University, Miscellaneous Publication Number 12, Clarksville, TN, USA.

Snyder, D.H. 1991. The green salamander (Aneides aeneus) in Tennessee and Kentucky, with comments on the Carolinas' Blue Ridge populations. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science: 165-169.

Woods, J.E. 1968. The ecology and natural history of Mississippi populations of Aneides aeneus and associated salamanders. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Southern Mississippi.

Citation: Geoffrey Hammerson. 2004. Aneides aeneus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T1282A3385547. . Downloaded on 21 April 2018.
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