|Scientific Name:||Andrias japonicus|
|Species Authority:||(Temminck, 1836)|
Triton japonicus Temminck, 1836
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Yoshio Kaneko, Masafumi Matsui|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Near Threatened since the species depends on streams in forest, and so its Area of Occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Japan and is distributed in western Honshu, Shikoku and Kyusyu.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is an uncommon species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lives and breeds in small to large rivers, preferring clear water, usually in forested areas. It has occasionally been found in rivers in urban areas. The adults can tolerate a wide variety of habitats, but are not necessarily able to breed in these habitats. Females lay their eggs in a string underwater and the larvae then develop in the streams. It is estimated to take at least five years for the young to reach maturity.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by dam construction, the construction of artificial concrete riverbanks, and the alteration of river courses. Suitable habitats are therefore becoming increasingly fragmented. It might also be facing competition from the introduced Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus). Genetic uniformity in this species is high, which increases its vulnerability to threatening processes.|
|Conservation Actions:||It has been designated as a special natural monument in Japan and is totally protected, and its habitats are protected in some areas. Asa Zoo has been breeding this species in captivity since 1979 (although no re-introductions have been performed), and it also rescues individuals from degraded habitats. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.|
Environment Agency. 2000. Threatened Wildlife of Japan - Red Data Book, 2nd Edition: Reptilia/Amphibia. Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Matsui, M. 2000. Japanese giant salamander. In: Environment Agency (ed.), Threatened Wildlife of Japan - Red Data Book, 2nd Edition: Reptilia/Amphibia, Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo.
Sengoku, S., Hikida, T., Matsui, M. and Nakaya, K. 1996. The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan. Volume 5. Amphibians, Reptiles, Chondrichthyes. Heibonsha Limited, Tokyo.
Zippel, K. 2005. Zoos play a vital role in amphibian conservation. http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/aw/declines/zoo/index.html 26 July 2005.
|Citation:||Yoshio Kaneko, Masafumi Matsui 2004. Andrias japonicus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 March 2014.|
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