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Macaca tonkeana 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca tonkeana
Species Authority: (Meyer, 1899)
Common Name(s):
English Tonkean Macaque, Tonkean Black Macaque
French Macaque De Tonkean
Spanish Macaca De Tonkean
Synonym(s):
Macaca hypomelanus (Matschie, 1901)
Taxonomic Notes: This species hybridizes with M. ochreata, M. maura and M. hecki in areas where their ranges overlap (Groves 2001). The so-called "Balantak Macaque" from the Togian Islands is almost certainly a hybrid swarm, rather than a distinct species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is considered Vulnerable due to an continued decline estimated to be more than 30% over three generations (approximately 40 years) in the past and future, due to a projected increase in oil palm, cacao and human settlement.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on Sulawesi and the Togian Islands, Indonesia. It is found in the central part of Sulawesi south to Latimojong, southwest to the base of the Toraja highlands (where it interbreeds with M. maura), southeast to the lakes region of the southeastern peninsula, and northwest to the isthmus between Palu and Parigi (where it interbreeds with M. hecki) (Groves 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is common in appropriate habitat. Densities are estimated at 3-5 individuals/km2 (WCS unpubl. data).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in rainforests at moderate elevations from sea level up to 2,000 m. It is frugivorous, but will eat immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops (fruits, vegetables, and maize).
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is often poisoned and trapped as an agricultural pest. Other threats include hunting for food, collection for use as pets and habitat conversion, especially due to oil palm and cacao plantations, and human settlements, all of with are projected increase in the coming decade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It exists in a number of protected areas, including: Lore Lindu National Park (2,290 km2); Morowali Nature Reserve (2,250 km2); Peg. Faruhumpenai (900 km2); Towuti Nature Recreation Park (687 km2); and Danau Matano Nature Recreation Park (331 km2).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Bynum, E. 1995. Hybridization between Macaca tonkeana and Macaca hecki in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph. D. Thesis, Yale.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Supriatna, J. 2000. Primates of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Watanabe, K., Matsumura, S., Watanabe, T. and Hamada, Y. 1991b. Distribution and possible intergradation between Macaca tonkeana and M. ochreata at the borderland of the species in Sulawesi. Primates 32(3): 385–389.


Citation: Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. 2008. Macaca tonkeana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12563A3359793. . Downloaded on 10 December 2016.
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