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Macaca tonkeana

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Macaca tonkeana
Species Authority: (Meyer, 1899)
Common Name(s):
English Tonkean Macaque, Tonkean Black Macaque
French Macaque De Tonkea
Spanish Macaca De Tonkean
Synonym(s):
Macaca hypomelanus (Matschie, 1901)
Macaca togeanus (Sody, 1949)
Macaca tonsus (Matschie, 1901)
Taxonomic Notes: This species hybridizes with M. ochreata, M. maura and M. hecki in areas where their ranges overlap (Groves 2001). The so-called "Balantak Macaque" from the Togian Islands is almost certainly a hybrid swarm, rather than a distinct species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is considered Vulnerable due to an continued decline estimated to be more than 30% over three generations (approximately 40 years) in the past and future, due to a projected increase in oil palm, cacao and human settlement.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs on Sulawesi and the Togian Islands, Indonesia. It is found in the central part of Sulawesi south to Latimojong, southwest to the base of the Toraja highlands (where it interbreeds with M. maura), southeast to the lakes region of the southeastern peninsula, and northwest to the isthmus between Palu and Parigi (where it interbreeds with M. hecki) (Groves 2001).
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common in appropriate habitat. Densities are estimated at 3-5 individuals/km2 (WCS unpubl. data).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in rainforests at moderate elevations from sea level up to 2,000 m. It is frugivorous, but will eat immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops (fruits, vegetables, and maize).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is often poisoned and trapped as an agricultural pest. Other threats include hunting for food, collection for use as pets and habitat conversion, especially due to oil palm and cacao plantations, and human settlements, all of with are projected increase in the coming decade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It exists in a number of protected areas, including: Lore Lindu National Park (2,290 km2); Morowali Nature Reserve (2,250 km2); Peg. Faruhumpenai (900 km2); Towuti Nature Recreation Park (687 km2); and Danau Matano Nature Recreation Park (331 km2).

Bibliography [top]

Bynum, E. 1995. Hybridization between Macaca tonkeana and Macaca hecki in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph. D. Thesis, Yale.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Supriatna, J. 2000. Primates of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Watanabe, K., Matsumura, S., Watanabe, T. and Hamada, Y. 1991. Distribution and possible intergradation between Macaca tonkeana and M. ochreata at the borderland of the species in Sulawesi. Primates 32(3): 385 ? 389.


Citation: Supriatna, J. & Richardson, M. 2008. Macaca tonkeana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 August 2014.
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