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Macaca nemestrina 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca nemestrina
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Southern Pig-tailed Macaque, Sundaland Pigtail Macaque, Pig-tailed Macaque, Pigtail Macaque, Sunda Pig-tailed Macaque
French Macaque À Queue De Cochon
Spanish Macaca Cola De Cerdo
Synonym(s):
Macaca brachyurus (Hamilton Smith, 1842)
Macaca broca Miller, 1906
Macaca carpolegus (Raffles, 1821)
Macaca fusca (Shaw, 1800)
Macaca libidinosus I. Geoffroy, 1826
Macaca longicruris (Link, 1795)
Macaca maimon (de Blainville, 1839)
Macaca nucifera Sody, 1936
Macaca platypygos (Schreber, 1774)
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon formerly included M. leonina as a subspecies (Groves 2001). There is some hybridization with M. leonina in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, and on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Richardson, M., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Konstant, B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 30% over the past 30-36 years (three generations) due primarily to hunting and habitat loss.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Commercially Threatened (CT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan Borneo, and Sumatra), Malaysia (including the Malay Peninsula and Sabah and Sarawak Borneo), and southern peninsular Thailand. There are small, introduced populations on Singapore and in the Natuna Islands (Groves 2001). The precise geographic boundary between M. nemestrina and M. leonina is not well defined. There are populations of the two taxa found on either side of the distribution limit in the Isthmus of Kra, but many of these populations are the result of release by humans. The two species hybridize in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, as well as on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah); Thailand
Introduced:
Singapore
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is common in some parts of its range, but numbers have been severely reduced in many places due to hunting and habitat loss.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a predominantly terrestrial animal, although it readily climbs and forages in the forest canopy. It is diurnal and frugivorous. It occupies lowland primary and secondary forest, as well as coastal, swamp and montane forest. It prefers dense rainforest at all elevations, but is equally at home in agricultural land.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): These animals are threatened by loss of habitat, which is very serious in many parts of its range. There is extensive loss of lowland forest in Malaysia and Indonesia to expanding oil palm plantations, as well as to logging and agricultural expansion. This species is also frequently shot as a crop pest (M. Richardson pers. comm.) and hunted for food.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. Further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, and threats to this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Oi, T. 1990. Population organization of wild pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina nemestrina) in West Sumatra. Primates 31(1): 15-31.


Citation: Richardson, M., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Konstant, B. 2008. Macaca nemestrina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12555A3356892. . Downloaded on 04 May 2016.
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