|Scientific Name:||Leptonycteris curasoae|
|Species Authority:||Miller, 1900|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This does not include yerbabuenae (= sanborni).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Soriano, P. and Molinari, J.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because of a population decline, estimated to be >30% over the last three generations (generation length of six years; Pacifici et al. 2013), inferred from exploitation of maternity caves, and suspected from habitat destruction and degradation. This species reproduces in a very limited number of caves and is vulnerable to vandalism. It lives in a very limited habitat type which is disappearing rapidly.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species occurs in dry areas in northeast Colombia, north and western Venezuela, Margarita Island, Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba (Netherlands Antilles; Simmons 2005).|
Native:Aruba; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Colombia; Curaçao; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland), Venezuelan Antilles)
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is frequently observed in areas of distribution unless absent due to seasonal migration and restricted to narrow habitat types. It might become uncommon in certain parts of its geographic range (Reid 1997).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This bat roosts in caves, mines and in some cases in abandoned buildings and tunnels, often in colonies of several thousand. It emerges about an hour after sunset to feed on cactus fruit, nectar and pollen of plants in several families (Agavaceae, Cactaceae, Bombacaceae; Fleming and Nassar 2002). It lands on the flowers or may hover for short periods to feed. Night roosts, including buildings, are used after feeding (Reid 1997). It is associated with thorn scrubs, spiny forests and dry forests, and is highly dependent on columnar cacti and agaves (Fleming and Nassar 2002, Nassar et al. 2003). The ecosystem is restricted, fragmented throughout its range, and mostly outside protected areas in all countries. This species is "keystone" in its ecosystem as a long-distance pollinator and seed disperser of agave and columnar cacti (and other plants associated with the habitat type). Direct and indirect evidence indicate that this species is migratory, however, not all subpopulations migrate annually (Simal et al. 2015), and colonies are sexually separated. It breeds on islands and the Paraguana Peninsula (Venezuela) and restricted to a low number of specific breeding caves. It as a unique sexual behaviour among bats, consisting in female choice mediated by an odoriferous dorsal patch present in males during the breeding season (November-December; Nassar et al. 2008, Muñoz-Romo et al. 2011).|
|Generation Length (years):||5-6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not used.|
|Major Threat(s):||Conversion of the ecosystem, which is rapidly being developed, is the primary threat and most of the habitat is outside of protected areas in all countries. There is only a narrow range of the habitat type and part of this is coastal, where much human expansion is occurring. Caves are very specific and threatened by vandalism. No effective protection measures have been implemented in them. Maternity colonies are scarce, extremely vulnerable and highly susceptible to human disturbance.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species needs conservation of maternity caves and its habitat type across all countries of occurrence. It occurs in protected areas but the habitat is mainly outside of these.|
Fleming, T.H. and Nassar, J.M. 2002. Population biology of the Lesser Long-Nosed bat, Leptonycteris curasoae, in Mexico and Northern South America. In: T.H. Fleming and A. Valiente-Banuet (eds), Evolution, ecology and conservation of columnar cacti and their mutualists, pp. 283-305. University of Arizona Press, Arizona.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Muñoz-Romo, M., Burgos, J.F. and Kunz, T.H. 2011. The Dorsal Patch of Males of the Curaçaoan Long-Nosed bat, Leptonycteris curasoae (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) as a Visual Signal. Acta Chiropterologica 13: 207-215.
Nassar, J.M., Beck, H., Sternberg, L. and Fleming, T.H. 2003. Dependence on cacti and agaves in nectar-feeding bats from Venezuelan arid zones. Journal of Mammalogy 84: 106-116.
Nassar, N.MA., Hashimoto, D.Y.C. and Fernandes, S.D.C. 2008. Wild Manihot species: botanical aspects, geographic distribution and economic value. Genetics and Molecular Research 7(1): 16–28.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Reid, F. 2009. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Reid, F.A. 1997. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York.
Simal F., De Lannoy C., García-Smith L., Doest O., De Freitas J.A., Franken F., Zaandam I., Martino A., González-Carcacía J.A., Peñaloza C.L., Bertuol P., Simal D., Nassar J.M. 2015. Island-island and island-mainland movements of the Curaçaoan long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris curasoae. Journal of Mammalogy (in press).
Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
|Citation:||Nassar, J. 2015. Leptonycteris curasoae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T11699A22126917. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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