|Scientific Name:||Leiocephalus herminieri (Duméril & Bibron, 1837)|
Holotropis herminieri Duméril & Bibron, 1837
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Hedges, B. & Hanson, S.|
This species is known only from Martinique, from which it has not been recorded since the 1830s. It is undoubtedly now Extinct, although the reasons are unknown.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species was apparently endemic to Martinique (Henderson and Powell 2009). The precise area where it occurred is unknown, however Duméril and Bibron (1837) identify the collection data for the holotype as "Trinite"; this name refers to a town on the island, and this is the interpretation favoured by Parker (1935). Duméril and Bibron (1837) however refer to Iles de Trinite (=Trinidad), but there is no evidence that any member of this genus ever occurred on Trinidad and the association of the Trinite locality with the island is likely to have been an error made by the describing authors. The locality data associated with subsequent specimens includes records from both Martinique and Trinidad, but the latter may have been simply a transit port (Pregill 1992).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species has not been collected since 1837 and is classified as probably extinct by Powell and Henderson (2012). There is no reasonable doubt that this species, which would have been conspicuous and likely tolerant of human disturbance on a well-populated large island, is indeed now extinct (R. Powell pers. comm. 2015). It appears to have been abundant where it occurred in the 18th Century, although its range may have been very restricted (Breuil 2002).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Leicocephalus species in the Caribbean are coastal and typically tolerant of human disturbance, and this species was apparently abundant some time after Europeans colonized Martinique (Breuil 2009).|
|Use and Trade:||There is no use or trade in this species, which is extinct.|
|Major Threat(s):||The causes of extinction of this lizard are not established; it seems to have been abundant in the 18th century, but its range could also have been very restricted. It may have been a beach dweller, as are other species in the genus, and if so tsunami waves may have destroyed its last littoral habitats in Martinique. The 1843 earthquake in Guadeloupe produced waves that may have submerged its habitats, as a 1-2 m increase of sea level was detected hundreds of kilometres from the epicentre. It has been suggested that this species possesses morphological characteristics, being terrestrial, that make it vulnerable to predation by the small Asian mongoose, however in the Greater Antilles Leiocephalus survive well in areas where this predator is found, although possibly at depressed densities (R. Powell pers. comm. 2015). As there is a gap of more than 50 years between the last sighting of this lizard and the introduction of the mongoose, this is an unlikely cause of extinction (Breuil 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||No conservation measures are applicable to this species, which is extinct.|
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
Breuil, M. 2002. Histoire naturelle des Amphibiens et Reptiles terrestres de l'archipel Guadeloupéen. Guadeloupe, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy. Patrimoines Naturels 54: 1-339.
Breuil, M. 2009. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Martinique: Past, present, future. Applied Herpetology 6(2): 123-149.
Duméril, A.M.C. and Bibron, G. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Tome quatrième. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.
Groombridge, B. 1992. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s Living Resources. Report compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Chapman and Hall, London.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R. 2009. Natural History of West Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Parker, H.W. 1935. The frogs, lizards, and snakes of British Guiana. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 505-530.
Powell, R. and Henderson, R.W. 2012. Island lists of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(2): 85-166.
Pregill, G.K. 1992. Systematics of the West Indian lizard genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (University of Kansas) 84: 1-69.
|Citation:||Powell, R. 2016. Leiocephalus herminieri (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T11389A115102240.Downloaded on 18 June 2018.|
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