Latidens salimalii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Latidens salimalii
Species Authority: Thonglongya, 1972
Common Name(s):
English Salim Ali's Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Molur, S. & Vanitharani, J.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Endangered because its area of occupancy is less than 500 km² and extent of occurrence is less than 5000 km², with all individuals in severely fragmented locations, and a continuing decline in its habitat quality.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Endangered (EN)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Rare (R)
1990 Insufficiently Known (K)
1988 Insufficiently Known (K)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to India and is presently known from localities in Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala State and in Kalakkad-Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve, Kardana Coffee Estate, Megamalai, High Wavy Mountains in Tamil Nadu State (Molur et al. 2002, Vanitharani et al. 2005). Its occurrence in Uppinangadi in Karnataka reported by R. Krishnan and A. Chakravorty (pers. comm. to Molur et al. 2002) requires verification and is therefore not considered here for the assessment. It has been recorded from elevations of 800 m to 1,100 m asl. The extent of occurrence of this species is 101-5,000 km² and the area of occupancy is 501-2,000 km² (Molur et al. 2002). More specifically, Vanitharani et al. (2004) calculate the extent of occurrence as being around 1,100 km² based on the location of roosts, while they calculate the area of occupancy as 10.05 km² based on the estimate by Singaravelan and Marimuthu (2003) of a foraging distance of 0.8 km from the roost
Countries occurrence:
India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 501-2,000
Number of Locations: 5
Lower elevation limit (metres): 800
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The abundance, population size and trends for this species are poorly known. However, Agoramoorthy (2000) and Singaravelan and Marimuthu (2003) note populations of 250-350 individuals of this species in the caves they observed. Vanitharani et al. (2004) report counting 50-400 bats in day and night roosts. In the recent past there has been observed a significant decline in its population (Molur et al. 2002).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a cave dwelling bat that is very sensitive to disturbance (Vanitharani et al. 2004). The species is found in montane evergreen forest and coffee/cardamom plantations (Molur et al. 2002, Vanitharani et al. 2004). The fig it eats has been identified as Ficus racemosa, but Vanitharani et al. (2004) infer from nuts from the roost that the bat also feeds on the fruits of Eleaocarpus serratus, E. tuberculatus and Dichapetalum gelanioides.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by hunting for local consumption as traditional medicine, for extraction of oil to cure asthma and disturbance to roosting sites by humans in High Wavy Mountains (Molur et al. 2002, Vanitharani et al. 2004). Tree cutting in coffee estates where permanent roosts are identified is a major threat (Molur et al. 2002, Singaravelan and Marimuthu 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This is the only fruit bat to be accorded the highest form of protection under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, amended in 2006 (S. Molur pers. comm. 2008). The species has been recorded from protected areas including Kalakkad-Mundunthurai National Park in Tamil Nadu and Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala. Thorough survey, ecology, population monitoring, habitat assessment, foraging distances and public awareness among the local tribal people is urgently recommended. There is a need to identify key roosting sites and to protect these localities.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) -> 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Bates, P.J.J. and Harrison, D.L. 1997. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, England, UK.

Molur, S., Marimuthu, G., Srinivasulu, C., Mistry, S. Hutson, A. M., Bates, P. J. J., Walker, S., Padmapriya, K. and Binupriya, A. R. 2002. Status of South Asian Chiroptera: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.

Singaravelan, N. and Marimuthu, G. 2003. Discovery of a cave as the day roost of a rarest fruit bat Latidens salimalii. Current Science 84(9): 1253-1256.

Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. and Sinha, Y. P. In press. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia: Biogeography, diversity, taxonomy and distribution. Journal of Threatened Taxa.

Vanitharani, J., Malathi, U. S. U. and Arul Sundari, K. 2005. New records of bats from Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. BatNet CCINSA Newsletter 6(1): 13-14.

Vanitharani, J., Pearch, M., Jeya Prabha, L. and Annamalai, R. R. 2004. A review of the distribution and status of Latidens salimalii (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) with new records from the Western Ghats, India. Lutra 47(1): 21-32.

Citation: Molur, S. & Vanitharani, J. 2008. Latidens salimalii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T11374A3274238. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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