|Scientific Name:||Actitis hypoleucos|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Faroe Islands; Fiji; French Southern Territories (the); Iceland; Kiribati; New Zealand; Samoa; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.2,600,000-3,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour This species is a full migrant, migrating at night overland on a broad front across both deserts and mountains (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Small numbers may also remain in the northern maritime climatic zone (e.g. the British Isles, Mediterranean and Japan) throughout the year (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). The European population that overwinters in West Africa migrates south between mid-July and August (juveniles following one month later), and returns to the breeding grounds from late-March to April (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). Immature individuals may also remain in the winter range throughout the summer breeding season (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species breeds from May to June in scattered single pairs 60-70 m apart in optimal breeding habitat (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and migrates singly or in small flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although it usually remains solitary in its winter range (Urban et al. 1986). It forages diurnally (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and may aggregate at night (Johnsgard 1981) into roosts of over 100 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species shows a preference for pebbly, sandy or rocky margins of fast-flowing rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), as well as small ponds, pools (Snow and Perrins 1998) and dams (Urban et al. 1986), clear freshwater lake shores, sheltered sea coasts with rocky or sandy beaches, tidal creeks and estuaries (Urban et al. 1986), and often forages in patches of dry meadow (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It occurs from sea level up to 4,000 m or more in the mountains, but generally avoid frozen, snow-clad or very hot areas (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding In its winter range this species inhabits a wide variety of habitats, such as small pools, ditches, riverbanks (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), streams, dam shores (Yalden 1992), marshy areas (Johnsgard 1981), estuaries, freshwater seeps on coastal shores, tidal creeks in mangrove swamps and saltmarshes, harbours, docks (Yalden 1992, Snow and Perrins 1998) and filtration tanks of sewage works (Yalden 1992). It will also forage on grassland along roadsides and occasionally in gardens (Yalden 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1996), but it generally avoids large coastal mudflats (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet The diet of this species consists of adult and larval insects (such as beetles and Diptera), spiders, molluscs, snails, crustaceans, annelids, and occasionally frogs, toads, tadpoles and small fish, as well as plant material (including seeds) (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression, sometimes amongst shrubs and trees (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Major Threat(s):||The size of the breeding population in England is threatened by disturbance from recreational anglers (Yalden 1992).|
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.
Yalden, D. W. 1992. The influence of recreational disturbance on common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos breeding by an upland reservoir, in England. Biological Conservation 61: 41-49.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Actitis hypoleucos. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 June 2013.|
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