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Phylloscopus collybita 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Phylloscopidae

Scientific Name: Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot, 1817)
Common Name(s):
English Common Chiffchaff
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Khwaja, N.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iceland; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kenya; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Western Sahara; Yemen
Vagrant:
Cameroon; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Seychelles
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:15300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 41,000,000-59,500,000 pairs, which equates to 81,900,000-119,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). It is therefore likely that the global population falls in the band 10,000,000-500,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10000000-500000000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occupies lowland deciduous forest and woodland with low undergrowth, as well as parks, hedgerows, shelterbelts, overgrown cemeteries, large gardens and reedbeds. In the east of its range it is found in spruce Picea and pine Pinus forests of Siberian taiga. Frequently, it inhabits damp alder Alnus and willow Salix woodland and river valleys and in the south of its range it prefers habitats with at least some tall trees but, exceptionally, breeds in coastal scrub lacking tall trees. It breeds from April until early August and lays five to six eggs. The nest is a ball of dry grasses, leaves, moss, plant fibres and feathers, normally placed on the ground and well concealed in a bramble bush Rubus fruticosus, a patch of nettles Urtica, grass or other thick vegetation. The diet is mostly insects and their eggs and larvae but also includes other arthropods, small molluscs Gastropoda, seeds and berries (Clement 2015). Most populations of the species are migratory (Snow and Perrins 1998).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.6
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Fluctuations in the British population are believed to be likely due to droughts in the non-breeding quarters in the West African Sahel (Clement 2015). In Finland, the species suffers from habitat fragmentation, interspecific competition from Willow Warbler P. trochilus and Goldcrest Regulus regulus, and climate change (Lampila et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Although this species is not threatened locally it may benefit from protection and restoration of its habitat. Monitoring should be implemented to detect population changes.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Added a country to the list of countries of occurrence.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.2. Named species [ Regulus regulus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.2. Named species [ Phylloscopus trochilus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Clement, P. 2015. Common Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Crick, H. Q. P.; Dudley, C.; Glue, D.E.; Thomson, D.L. 1997. UK birds are laying earlier. Nature 388: 526.

Crick, H. Q. P.; Sparks, T.H. 1999. Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature 399: 423-424.

Croxton, P. J.; Sparks, T. H.; Cade, M.; Loxton, R. G. 2006. Trends and temperature effects in the arrival of spring migrants in Portland (United Kingdom) 1959-2005. Acta Ornithologica 41: 103-111.

EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=587.

Forchhammer, M. C.; Post, E.; Stenseth, N. C. 1998. Breeding phenology and climate. Nature 391: 29-30.

Hüppop, O.; Hüppop, K. 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270: 233-240.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Jenni, L. and Kery, M. 2003. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270(1523): 1467-1471.

Lampila, P., Mönkkönen, M. and Rajasärkkä, A. 2009. The ability of forest reserves to maintain original fauna–why has the Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus) disappeared from eastern central Finland? Ornis Fennica 86(2): 71-80.

Mason, C .F. 1995. Long-term trends in the arrival dates of spring migrants. Bird Study 42: 182-189.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sparks, T. H.; Bairlein, F.; Bojarinova, J. G.; Huppop, O.; Lehikoinen, E. A.; Rainio, K.; Sokolov, L. V.; Walker, D. 2005. Examining the total arrival distribution of migratory birds. Global Change Biology 11: 22-30.

Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Bland, R. L.; Crick, H. Q. P.; Croxton, P. J.; Flood, J.; Loxton, R. G.; Mason, C. F.; Newnham, J.A.; Tryjanowski, P. 2007. How consistent are trends in arrival (and departure) dates of migrant birds in the UK? Journal of Ornithology 148: 503-511.

Tøttrup, A. P.; Thorup, K.; Rahbek, C. 2006. Patterns of change in timing of spring migration in North European songbird populations. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 84-92.

Zalakevicius, M., Bartkeviciene, G., Raudonikis, L., and Janulaitis, J. 2006. Spring arrival response to climate change in birds: a case study from eastern Europe. Journal of Ornithology 147: 326-343.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Phylloscopus collybita (amended version of assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103843725A119268047. . Downloaded on 21 January 2018.
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