|Scientific Name:||Hipposideros commersoni|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy, 1813)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Considered as an endemic species to Madagascar by Peterson et al. (1995) and Simmons (2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriafidison, D, Cardiff, S.G., Goodman, S.M., Hutson, A.M., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Racey, P.A., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F.H. & Razafimanahaka, H.J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Near Threatened in view of the significant threat from hunting in the west, which is likely to have resulted in a decline in the region of 20-25% over the past 15 years. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A. However, as this species is generally widespread across Madagascar, occurs both in and outside a number of protected areas, and has an ability to tolerate some degree of habitat modification, it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to warrant listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the island of Madagascar where it occurs from sea-level to at least 1,350 m above sea level.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is little information available on population size, but this species can roost in colonies of many thousand individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found in a wide variety of vegetation types, including dry deciduous, littoral and gallery forests (Goodman et al. 2005; Raharinantenaina et al. 2008). It roosts in large colonies in caves and in solitary settings on the peripheral branches of large trees (Cardiff 2006; Goodman 2006; Raharinantenaina et al. 2008). In sites with extensive networks of underground cavities, H. commersoni only occupies a few of the potential roosting caves (Cardiff 2006) and in Réserve Spéciale d’Ankarana used rather narrow caves within 100 m of water (Cardiff 2006). It often uses buildings as night roosts or feeding perches. This species is known to use the edge and interiors of relatively intact forest, but has also been caught feeding in and around small villages (Ifticene et al. 2005; Kofoky et al. 2007; Rakotoarivelo and Randrianandriananina 2007; Raharinantenaina et al. 2008). Further study is therefore required on its forest dependency, but there is evidence that mature forest trees are an essential habitat resource for H. commersoni in areas without caves (Raharinantenaina et al. 2008).
It is a specialist beetle predator and appears to be inactive during the austral winter (Razakarivony et al. 2005; Kofoky et al. 2007; Rakotoarivelo et al. 2007) and may even be migratory (Ranivo and Goodman 2007). Males are significantly larger than females and the latter sex show latitudinal variation in morphology (Ranivo and Goodman 2007).
|Major Threat(s):||Besides habitat loss, it is also threatened by hunting and is particularly vulnerable at roosting sites where bats are hunted as they emerge at dusk (Goodman et al. 2008; Jenkins and Racey in press). In the extreme south-west of Madagascar, there were an estimated 140,000 individuals harvested for food annually between January and March (Goodman 2006). This hunting is thought to be occur throughout western Madagascar in areas where local people live in close proximity to roosting colonies of H. commersoni (Jenkins and Racey in press).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in a number of protected areas (Parc National du Tsingy de Bemaraha, Parc National d’Isalo, Parc National d’Ankarafantsika, Parc National de Namoroka, Parc National de Tsimanampetsotsa, Réserve Spéciale d’Ankarana, Réserve Spéciale d’Analamerana, Parc National de la Montagne d’Ambre, Parc National de Kirindy-Mite) as well as other forest that are actively managed for conservation (Goodman et al. 2005; Ifticene et al. 2005; Rakotoarivelo and Randrianandriananina 2007; Ranivo and Goodman 2007).|
Cardiff, S. G. 2006. Bat Cave Selection and Conservation in Ankarana, Northern Madagascar. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.
Eger, J. L. and Mitchell, L. 2003. Chiroptera, bats. In: S. M. Goodman and J. P.Benstead (eds), The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 1287-1298. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Goodman, S. G., Ratrimomanarivo, F. H., Ranivo, J., Cariff, S. G. 2008. The hunting of microchiropteran bats in different portions of Madagascar. African Bat Conservatoin News 16: 4-7.
Goodman, S. M. 2006. Short communication hunting of microchiroptera in south-weastern Madagascar. Oryx 40(2): 225-228.
Goodman, S. M., Andriafidison, D., Andrianaivoarivelo, R., Cardiff, S. G., Ifticene, E., Jenkins, R. K. B., Kofoky, A., Mbohoahy, T., Rakotondravony, D., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F., Razafimanahaka, J. and Racey, P. A. 2005. The distribution and conservation of bats in the dry regions of Madagascar. Animal Conservation 8: 153-165.
Ifticene, E., Razafimanahaka, J. H. and Goodman, S. M. 2005. Les Chiroptères. In: J. Ratsirarson and S. M. Goodman (eds), Suivi de la biodiversité de la Forêt Littorale de Tampolo, pp. 81-88. Recherches pour le Developpment, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Jenkins, R. K. B. and Racey, P. A. 2008. Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 3(1): 22-30.
Kofoky, A. F., Andriafidison, D., Ratrimomanarivo, F. H., Razafimanahaka, H. J., Rakotondravony, D., Racey, P. A. and Jenkins, R. K. B. 2007. Habitat use, roost selection and conservation of bats in Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, Madagascar. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 1039-1053.
Raharinantenaina, I. M. O., Kofoky, A. F., Mbohoahy, T., Andriafidison, D., Randrianandriananina, F. H., Ramilijaona, O. R. and Jenkins, R. K. B. 2008. Hipposideros commersoni (E. Geoffroy, 1813, Hipposideridae) roosting in trees in littoral forest, south-eastern Madagascar. African Bat Conservation News 15: 2-3.
Rakotoarivelo, A. R., Ranaivoson, N., Ramilijaona, O., Kofoky, A. F., Racey, P. A. and Jenkins, R. K. B. 2007. Seasonal food habits of five sympatric forest microchiropterans in western Madagascar. Journal of Mammalogy 88: 959-966.
Ranivo, J. and Goodman, S. G. 2007. Variation géographique de Hipposideros commersoni de la zone séche de Madagascar (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Hipposideridae). Verhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg 43: 35-56.
Razakarivony, V., Rajemison, B. and Goodman, S. M. 2005. The diet of Malagasy Microchiroptera based on stomach contents. Mammalian Biology 70(5): 312-316.
|Citation:||Andriafidison, D, Cardiff, S.G., Goodman, S.M., Hutson, A.M., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Racey, P.A., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F.H. & Razafimanahaka, H.J. 2008. Hipposideros commersoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2015.|
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