Cicer bijugum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fabales Fabaceae

Scientific Name: Cicer bijugum Rech.f.
Taxonomic Notes: Cicer bijugum Rech.f. is a tertiary genetic relative of Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) (Ahmad et al. 2005, USDA, ARS National Genetic Resources Program 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-08-14
Assessor(s): Zair, W.
Reviewer(s): Fielder, H.
Cicer bijugum is globally assessed as Endangered B2ab(iii) as it has a limited area of occurrence (AOO) of only 72 km2 (< 500 km2) as well as being heavily reliant on traditionally farmed agricultural land as suitable habitat, which is likely to be severely fragmented and in decline due to the large-scale modernization of agricultural practices in temperate Asia. Öztürk et al. (2012), report that this species is Critically Endangered in Turkey.

In situ conservation of this species, through preservation and careful management of traditional farming practices and by raising awareness and working together with local communities is an urgent priority.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Cicer bijugum is native to Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2016).
Countries occurrence:
Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:72
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Cicer bijugum is a common wild plant often associated with agricultural land, it is not common on uncultivated patches of land (van der Maesen 1972). The threat of intensification and modernization of agriculture in its native range suggests this species' population is in decline (Abbo et al. 2005, 2007).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In southeastern Turkey, Cicer bijugum is found on basalt soil on roadsides from Urfa to Diyarbakir and from Diyarbakir to Ergani. It is also found along field edges from Savur to Senkoy in Mardin province, where it grows on soil derived from limestone. In general, this species is associated with disturbed agricultural land e.g. drylands farms, usually harvested with lentil and chickpea crops and also occurring in flax fields where it is not harvested; it is not common on uncultivated land (van der Maesen 1972).

Like pods of mature C. echinospermum, those of C. bijugum fall intact and burst on the ground, releasing their seeds (van der Maesen 1972).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Cicer bijugum is a tertiary genetic relative of Chickpea (C. arietinum) (Ahmad et al. 2005, USDA, ARS National Genetic Resources Program 2013) and so it has the potential for use as a gene donor for crop improvement. It is known to have resistance to Botrytis grey mould (BGM), caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers (Stevenson and Haware 1999).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Cicer bijugum is a companion weed and a common feature in traditionally managed agricultural land. However, over the last few decades, traditional agriculture in large parts of this species' native area has been transformed into highly mechanized modern farming. In addition to the introduction of modern machinery for dry-land grain cropping, large areas of eastern Turkey have been converted to irrigated (e.g. Cotton) farming, possible due to the Ataturk and Karakaya dams established on the Euphrates River. When encountered during a manual harvest, these plants are left in the field to shed their seeds and are not weeded out (Abbo et al. 2007). In contrast, the introduction of modern farm operations that include deep ploughing, herbicide application (as evident from the relatively weed-free cereal fields west of Diyarbakir) or careful weeding to ensure high cotton quality is changing the weed flora of these agricultural habitats. Abbo et al. (2005) stated that they were not aware of any reports of Cicer species as weeds in modem agrosystems, and they forecast that the modernization of agriculture in eastern Turkey will most likely eliminate the typical weeds of traditional farming, including C. bijugum.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The genus Cicer is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) (FAO 2009).

The Global Biodiversity Information Facility reports 98 occurrences (GBIF 2013). The EURISCO Catalogue (2013) reports four accessions for this species in European genebanks. A total of 19 accessions are held in the National Plant Germplasm System, all of which are of wild origin (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2016). However, no accessions are yet duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV Data Portal 2016).

In 2012, Öztürk et al. presented a conference paper at The Second International Symposium on the Biology of Rare and Endemic Plant Species, in Turkey, which reviewed the national Red List status of wild Cicer species in Turkey. It classified C. bijugum nationally as Critically Endangered, however, at the time of this assessment only the abstract of this paper is accessible and therefore the criteria on which this classification is based remains unknown.

Citation: Zair, W. 2016. Cicer bijugum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T98066922A98066943. . Downloaded on 16 August 2018.
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