|Scientific Name:||Prolemur simus|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1871)|
Hapalemur simus Gray, 1871
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Formerly included in Hapalemur, but included in Prolemur by Groves (2001).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.|
There is a suspected population reduction of 80% or more in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 9 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include observed, inferred and predicted continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, mining, the cutting of bamboo, and decline in the number of mature individuals through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Subfossil remains confirm that this species once had a widespread distribution in Madagascar that covered the northern, north-western, central and eastern portions of Madagascar, including Ampasambazimba in the Itasy Basin (west of Antananarivo), the Grotte d'Andrafiabe on the Ankarana Massif, and the Grottes d'Anjohibe near Mahajanga and Tsingy de Bemaraha (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Until recently the species was thought to have a much diminished range, in and near the south-eastern rainforests of Madagascar (Mutschler and Tan 2003). Recent range extensions based on confirmed sightings illustrate that the present-day range is not as diminished as previously though (Dolch et al. 2008, King and Chamberlan 2010, Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Rakotonirina et al. 2011b), and indirect evidence suggests the species may still be widely distributed through much of eastern Madagascar (Dolch et al. 2010, Rakotonirina et al. 2011a, 2011b). The latitudinal range of sites with confirmed sightings as of July 2012 is 18°06’S (near Didy in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor; The Aspinall Foundation, unpubl. data) to 22°26’S (near Karianga, north of Vondrozo; Johnson and Wyner 2000; Wright et al. 2008). The elevation range for confirmed sightings is 20 (Bonaventure et al. 2012) to 1,600 m (Goodman et al. 2001 in Wright et al. 2008). Confirmed sightings have been made in recent years in the remaining mid to high altitude rainforest corridors from Didy to Andasibe (Dolch et al. 2008, Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Randrianarimanana et al. 2012, Olson et al. in press) and from the Ranomafana National Park to the Andringitra National Park (Petter et al. 1977, Wright et al. 2008, Delmore et al. 2009), and in lowland degraded landscapes in the Brickaville District (Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012), the Vatomandry District (Rakotonirina et al. 2011b), at the confluence of the Mangoro and Nosivolo rivers in the Mahanoro District (Rakotonirina et al. 2011b, Z.A. Andrianandrasana unpublished reports), around Kianjavato in the Mananjary District (Andriaholinirina et al. 2003, Wright et al. 2008, McGuire et al. 2009), and near Karianga in the Vondrozo District (Wright et al. 2008, 2009).
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Although until recently thought to have a population size totalling less than 200 individuals (Wright et al. 2009), recent work has illustrated that many sites were previously overlooked, and even at several known sites the population sizes were underestimated. Currently over 500 individuals are known in the wild, from approximately 11 subpopulations, but none of these subpopulations appear to exceed 250 mature individuals (Dolch et al. 2008, McGuire et al. 2009, Wright et al. 2009, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012, Randrianarimanana et al. 2012, H.N.T. Randriahaingo unpubl. reports). Several other sites with indirect evidence for presence have not yet any direct observations for estimating population sizes. There is no good information available on current population trend, but it is likely to be decreasing due to habitat destruction and hunting – there is some evidence for localised extinctions (e.g. Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is associated with habitats containing large-culmmed bamboo, particularly Cathariostachys madagascariensis in mid to high altitude rainforest sites (Tan 1999, 2000; Dolch et al. 2008; Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011; Randrianarimanana et al. 2012) and Valiha diffusa and Bambusa vulgaris in lowland secondary habitats (Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Rakotonirina et al. 2011b, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012). In Ranomafana National Park, the bamboo Cathariostachys madagascariensis can account for as much as 95% of the diet, with shoots, young and mature leaves, and pith being consumed (Tan 1999, 2000). The patchiness of this bamboo species may be one factor limiting the current distribution and population continuity of P. simus, as this key food species is not found in all forest microhabitats, and is apparently limited to forest near large rivers. The availability of drinking water could also be a limiting factor, as during dry months in Ranomafana National Park, P. simus was the only lemur species seen regularly coming to streams to drink water (Wright et al. 2008).
Observations of wild populations and animals in captivity suggest that this species is cathemeral, active both during the day and at night throughout the year. They live in polygamous groups that can occupy home ranges of 40-60 ha or more. Mating begins in May or June, with infants typically born in October and November. Females usually give birth to a single young each year, after a gestation period of approximately 150 days. (Mittermeier et al. 2010, and references therein). Sexual maturity occurs at around two years. Individuals have lived over 17 years in captivity.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||9|
|Use and Trade:||This species is hunted for food, using slingshots, spears, and snares (Wright et al. 2008).|
The Greater Bamboo Lemur is threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, mining, the cutting of bamboo, and hunting with slingshots and snares, the latter exacerbated by their movements into the rice paddies. This is the most commonly hunted lemur species in the south.
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species has also been on the list of the World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, prepared every two years by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, the International Primatological Society, and Conservation International, since 2002. Remnant populations now receive protection in Ranomafana National Park and Andringitra National Park. Torotorofotsy is also a RAMSAR wetland site. A recent assessment of the species (Wright et al. 2008, 2009) has shown that the species only occurs at 12 sites and now occupies only 1-4 % of its former range. However, it is quite possible that future field surveys will turn up additional populations, as in the case of the Torotorofotsy population. As of 2009, there were 15 individuals in six European collections, along with four in Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (ISIS 2009, E. E. Louis Jr. pers.obs.).|
|Citation:||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Prolemur simus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T9674A16121559. . Downloaded on 13 February 2016.|
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