|Scientific Name:||Eulemur flavifrons|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1867)|
Eulemur macaco subspecies flavifrons (Gray, 1867)
This species was previously considered to be a subspecies of Eulemur macaco. After the elevation of all former E. fulvus subspecies to full species status (Mittermeier et al. 2006), E. macaco remained the only member of the genus that was divided into subspecies (E. m. macaco and E. m. flavifrons). Taking into account the consistency of the morphological differences between the Black Lemur and the Blue-eyed Black Lemur, the retention of this taxonomy is inappropriate. The pairwise genetic distances between macaco and flavifrons are 68–72 bp, which is in the same range as between the former E. fulvus subspecies (29–90 bp, according to Pastorini 2000). Some earlier authors suggested a geographical cline in subspecific traits over a relatively large area of their distribution border (Meyers et al. 1989, Rabarivola et al. 1991), but more recent surveys suggest that the zone of hybridization between the two taxa is restricted to the north-eastern part of the distribution of E. flavifrons (Andrianjakarivelo 2004; Schwitzer et al. 2005, 2006). Based on these findings, and in order to restore a consistent taxonomy of Eulemur, the Blue-eyed Black Lemur was raised to full species status by Mittermeier et al. (2008, 2010).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Molur, S. & Schwitzer, C.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.|
Listed as Critically Endangered based on a suspected ongoing decline in the taxon’s area of occupancy (AOO) and quality of habitat (and, thus, a population size reduction) of ≥80% over three generations (or 24 years, assuming a generation length of 8 years), the causes of which have not ceased and will to a large extent not be easily reversible (see, e.g., Seiler et al. 2010); and on very high actual levels of exploitation (Andrianjakarivelo 2004 found a density of up to 570 lemur traps/km2 within certain areas of Eulemur flavifrons distribution).
Eulemur flavifrons has a very limited distribution in northwestern Madagascar. It occurs on the Sahamalaza Peninsula as well as in a narrow stretch of forest on the adjacent mainland, extending from around Befotaka in the south to the Manongarivo mountains in the north. The Maevarano River serves as the southern boundary of the species’ range, the Sandrakota River as the eastern boundary and parts of the Andranomalaza River as the northern boundary, although it also occurs north-east of the latter, just east to the Manongarivo Special Reserve (Andrianjakarivelo 2004, Rabarivola et al. 1991, Randriatahina and Rabarivola 2004). A zone of hybridization or intergradation with E. macaco has been identified north of the Andranomalaza River in the Manongarivo mountains and the foothills of the southern Sambirano, including part of the Manongarivo Special Reserve (Meyers et al. 1989, Rabarivola et al. 1991; but see Schwitzer and Lork 2004).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In E. flavifrons, mean density was calculated to be 24 indviduals/km2 in the eastern part of the species’ range (Andrianjakarivelo 2004) and 97 individuals/km2 in the Ankarafa Forest on the Sahamalaza Peninsula (Volampeno et al. 2011), but the latter figure seems to be unusually high.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Eulemur flavifrons inhabits more or less disturbed primary and secondary tropical sub-humid forests in the southern Sambirano, a transition zone between the Sambirano region in the north and the western dry deciduous forest region in the south. It occurs from sea level up to an altitude of 1,200 m (Randriatahina and Rabarivola 2004). Its home range size and utilization differs between primary and secondary forest fragments, indicating that this species is somewhat able to adapt to different types of habitat. However, larger home ranges and lower densities of E. flavifrons in secondary forest as compared to primary forest suggest that the former is less suitable habitat for the species (Schwitzer et al. 2007a). (The average home range for this species is 5.28 ha). Parasite prevalence seems to be higher in secondary than in primary forest and seems generally high when compared to data from other lemur species, suggesting that E. flavifrons on the Sahamalaza Peninsula are generally under pressure, possibly due to the high degree of fragmentation and degradation of the remaining forest habitat (Schwitzer et al. 2010). During a 12-month study, E. flavifrons consumed parts of 72 different plant species from 35 families. 52.3% of these were fruits, and 47.7% were leaves. The animals also fed on flowers, insects, insect exudate and fungi (Polowinsky and Schwitzer 2009). At certain times of the year, this species may feed on large quantities of cicadas. Eulemur flavifrons exhibits a bimodal activity pattern with peaks during the morning and evening twilight. It shows activity bouts during the day and night year-round. Nocturnal illumination and the proportion of illuminated lunar disk are positively associated with the amount of nocturnal activity. Total daily activity, as well as nocturnal activity, is higher in secondary forest than in primary forest (Schwitzer et al. 2007b). Group size ranges from 4 to 11 individuals (Andrianjakarivelo 2004, Randriatahina and Rabarivola 2004, Schwitzer 2004, Volampeno et al. 2011). Infant mortality for this species is 22.7%.
|Use and Trade:||It is locally hunted for food, and animals are taken as pets.|
The greatest threat to the Blue-eyed Black Lemur is habitat destruction due to the continuing slash-and-burn agriculture as well as selective logging, mining and “feu de colère” (Seiler et al. 2010). Logging and forest fires have increased dramatically since the onset of the political crisis in Madagascar in early 2009. The species is also hunted for food, especially by the Tsimihety in the eastern range of its distribution, where Andrianjakarivelo (2004) found a trap density of up to 570 traps/km2 within certain areas. Blue-eyed Black Lemurs are locally kept as pets.
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is considered one of the most threatened primates in the world, having been included on the 2008 list of the world's 25 Most Endangered Primates, drawn up every two years by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, the International Primatological Society, and Conservation International (Schwitzer et al. 2009). Parts of the distribution area of E. flavifrons officially received protected area status in 2007 (Parc National Sahamalaza-Iles Radama), including the Sahamalaza Peninsula and some mainland forests to the north and east (Lernould 2002, Schwitzer and Lork 2004, Schwitzer et al. 2006). The Sahamalaza Peninsula is also a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. As of 2010, there were about 75 individuals in captivity in Europe, North America and Madagascar (ISIS 2009; I.J. Porton pers. comm.). However, individuals tend not to do very well in captivity; obesity is a problem. (C. Schwitzer pers. comm.).
|Citation:||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur flavifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 July 2015.|