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Eulemur fulvus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Eulemur fulvus
Species Authority: (É. Geoffroy, 1796)
Common Name(s):
English Brown Lemur, Common Brown Lemur
French Lémur Brun, Maki Brun
Synonym(s):
Eulemur fulvus (É. Geoffroy, 1796) subspecies fulvus
Eulemur fulvus subspecies mayottensis (Schlegel, 1866)
Taxonomic Notes: Eulemur fulvus mayottensis (Schlegel 1886), described from the island of Mayotte is considered by Mittermeir et al. (1994) to be nothing more than descendants of E. fulvus fulvus which had been introduced to the island. Generic synonym = Lemur.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

The taxon is in decline due to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Eulemur fulvus is suspected to have undergone a reduction of 20-25% over the past 24 years (three generations, assuming a generation length of 8 years). Due to the close proximity of this value to the Vulnerable category (under criterion A2cd), in addition to suspected future increases in fragmentation, hunting and population decline, the species is listed as Near Threatened.

History:
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)
1994 Rare (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Rare (IUCN 1990)
1990 Rare (IUCN 1990)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in Madagascar in three populations: in the west, north of the Betsiboka River, where it lives on the high plateau in scattered forest fragments; in eastern Madagascar, to the north of the Mangoro River to the Onive River (generally north-east of Antananarivo as far as the Ambatovaky Special Reserve); and in an isolated population in Ambohitantely Special Reserve, a small reserve of no more than 3,000 ha. They are also on the island of Mayotte, where it apparently was introduced by human agency (Mittermeier et al. 2008).

The western populations can be divided into two subpopulations, a southern one extending from the Betsiboka River/Ankarafantsika National Park to the Maverano River, and a northern one ranging from the Andranomalaza River and Manongarivo Reserve to the Mahavavy du Nord River south of Ambilobe. Animals in the northern reaches of this range may also be found throughout the moister forests of the Sambirano region, as well as on the slopes of the Tsaratanana Massif, and are very similar in colouration to the Brown Lemurs found on the island of Mayotte (Mittermeier et al. 2008). It ranges from sea-level to 400 m.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Introduced:
Mayotte
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population densities range from 40-60 individuals/km2 (Mittermeier et al. 2008).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs in the tropical/subtropical dry forest in the west, and tropical moist lowland and montane forest in the east. Groups vary in size from 3-12 (larger on Mayotte) and home ranges on Madagascar vary from approximately seven to 20 ha (Mittermeier et al. 2008). The diet consists largely of fruits, young leaves, and flowers, supplemented with bark, sap, soil, bird eggs and animal prey (including insects, centipedes, millipedes, and nestlings). The mating season is in May and June. Most adult females produce offspring each year. One or two young are born in September or October, after a gestation period of around 120 days. Weaning occurs at 6–7 months, and sexual maturity at between 1–2 years. Individuals may live up to 30 years.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest destruction, due primarily to slash-and-burn practices, charcoal production and illegal logging, is the principal threat, but hunting is increasingly becoming a significant threat (including with blowpipes, firearms, bow-and-arrows and traps) and sometimes entire groups are captured.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species is reported to occur in four national parks (Ankarafantsika, Mantadia, Andringitra, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Tsaratanana and Zahamena), and seven special reserves (Ambatovaky, Ambohitantely, Analamazaotra, Bora, Mangerivola, Manongarivo, and Tampoketsa-Analamaitso) (Mittermeier et al. 2008). Several hundred E. fulvus hybrids also inhabit the little island of Bouzi, off Mayotte in the Comoros, which serves as an unofficial lemur sanctuary. As of 2009, there were approximately 160 individuals in zoos around the world, though unfortunately many of them would appear to be of mixed or unknown origins (ISIS 2009).

Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur fulvus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 September 2014.
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