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Eulemur albifrons

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Eulemur albifrons
Species Authority: (E. Geoffroy, 1796)
Common Name(s):
English White-fronted Lemur, White-fronted Brown Lemur
Synonym(s):
Eulemur fulvus (É. Geoffroy, 1796) subspecies albifrons
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly considered a subspecies of Eulemur fulvus, but later raised to species level (Groves 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cde ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

Listed as Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of ≥50% over a period of 24 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. There is also significant hybridization with E. fulvus over a wide area. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.

History:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
1994 Rare (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Rare (IUCN 1990)
1990 Rare (IUCN 1990)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found throughout most of the rainforest that remains in northeastern Madagascar, occurring from the Bemarivo River, near Sambava, south to the region of Mananara Nord, including the Masoala Peninsula. There is an isolated population in the Betampona Nature Reserve, and they have been introduced to Nosy Mangabe. Distribution south of Mananara remains to be clarified as there is significant hybridization with E. fulvus over a wide area (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). This species is not found on the Makira plateau as once believed. It ranges from sea level to 1,670 m.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population density has been estimated at around 15 individuals/km2 on the Masoala Peninsula (Rakotondratsima and Kremen 2001).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is an arboreal species found in tropical moist forest. It is believed to be cathemeral, active both day and night throughout the year. Females are reported to feed more heavily than males on flowers during the dry season, typically a time of resource abundance during which they also are more likely to give birth. Fecundity has been measured at 0.2 – 0.7 babies per adult female per year, with most adult females producing offspring each year (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Home range is approximately 16ha (Vasey 1997). Infant mortality in captivity was 17% within 30 days (Watson et al. 1996). Group size is 3.1 + or - 1.9 individuals (Sterling and McFadden 2000) and the adult sex ratio (#F/#M) is 1.16 +or - 0.06 (Rakotondratsima and Kremen 2001).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Destruction of Madagascar’s eastern rain forests, primarily through slash-and -burn practices and selective logging (but also through mining for quartz), is the principal threat to the survival of E. albifrons in Masoala and Marojejy. The species is also hunted for food in many parts of its range, with especially high rates in the Makira Protected Area (Golden 2009). This was the most heavily hunted species in Makira (using both traps and firearms, although the latter are very few in the region), where it was the most heavily hunted of all lemurs (Golden 2005, 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species is found in three national parks (Mananara-Nord, Marojejy, and Masoala), in the Betampona Strict Nature Reserve, and in two special reserves (Anjanaharibe-Sud and Nosy Mangabe) (Mittermeier et al. 2008). Control of hunting within the range is urgently required. There is a relatively large worldwide captive population. As of 2009 there were approximately 150 white-fronted brown lemurs in zoos around the world (ISIS 2009). New threats to the northeastern rainforests from illegal rosewood harvesting and the flux of immigration that ensued from these behaviours following the transition in government have brought increased threat to this species. Further, increased levels of hunting have been recorded in the Makira Protected Area (Golden unpublished data).


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur albifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.
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