|Scientific Name:||Euderma maculatum|
|Species Authority:||(J.A. Allen, 1891)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Medellín, R. & Schipper, J.|
This species is listed as Least Concern in because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||SW Canada and Montana (USA) to Queretaro (Mexico) (Simmons, 2005).|
Native:Canada; Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Very little is known about this species. It was once thought to be rare In the 100 years from the time of its discovery to 1990 only 14 individuals, for example, were collected in California. Since then the number of locations where spotted bats have been found in that state has tripled, and their range is now known to extend from Montana south to central Mexico, including in western US into arid parts of Nevada, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah that were previously unrecognized. While the distribution is very patchy over this range, the species may be locally common. Typically at a given site usually only one is caught per night, and individuals are well dispersed, separated by distances of 750-1,000 m of each other. They use vocalizations to communicate with neighbours. There is at least one recorded account of an apparent territorial dispute involving vocalization and direct contact. Only in one study has this species been seen foraging in groups (Hussain 2000). It is considered as very rare in its South range of its distribution (Arroyo-Cabrales pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Spotted bats have been found foraging in many different habitats, especially in arid or Ponderosa Pine forests, and marshlands. Because of the low frequency of their echolocation calls large open habitat is predicted to be preferred. However, it is believed that the distribution of suitable diurnal roosting sites is cause for the patchy distribution of this species. Spotted Bats roost in the small cracks found in cliffs and stony outcrops. They have been found as high as 3,000 m above sea level, and even below sea level in the deserts of California (Pierson and Rainey 1998; Poche 1981; Watkins 1977).
The female gives birth to one young weighing 20% of her body weight usually around June. Young do not have the spots of the adults, nor fully developed ears at birth. Juveniles have been caught in mist nets in July. Lactating females have been caught as late as August (Watkins 1977).
Very little is known about the distribution of the population of this bat. Because the Spotted Bat seems to forage in various habitats, conservation of diurnal roosts, rocky cliffs that have snug cracks for roosting, seem to be the best way to protect this species. However, large open foraging sights, where their echolocation is most effective, are important to the conservation of this species, as well as the availability of large moths as prey.
In general, the long term persistence of North American bat species is threatened by the loss of clean, open water; modification or destruction of roosting and foraging habitat; and for hibernating species, disturbance or destruction of hibernacula (Chambers and Herder, 2005)
|Conservation Actions:||Research actions. Habitat conservation. The species is included inside the Mexican regulation for species conservation NOM-59-SEMARNAT-2001 (Arroyo-Cabrales pers. comm.).|
|Citation:||Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T. 2008. Euderma maculatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 January 2015.|
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