|Scientific Name:||Etheostoma trisella|
|Species Authority:||Bailey & Richards, 1963|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because area of occupancy and number of locations during spawning are very small. Trend probably is relatively stable, so the species does not qualify for any of the threatened categories under criteria A, B, or C.
|Range Description:||This species' range includes the Coosa River system in northern Alabama, extreme northern Georgia, and extreme southeastern Tennessee (Page and Burr 2011). Present known range includes the Conasauga River system above the confluence with the Coosawattee River in Georgia and Tennessee (Boschung and Mayden 2004), and the species was rediscovered in 2008 and found to be well established in Alabama in Little Canoe Creek (O'Neil et al. 2009).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Mettee et al. (1996) mapped 9 collection sites in Georgia, 6 in Tennessee, and 1 (extirpated) in Alabama; these represent perhaps 10 or so distinct occurrences, not all of which are extant. Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped 2 historical (1947 and 1958) collection sites in Alabama. O'Neil et al. (2009) mapped 12 recent sites in Alabama.
The number of locations is very small if only known spawning sites are counted.
Total adult population size is unknown but likely to be small. In 2008, O'Neil et al. (2009) found 228 individuals in 12 sites in Alabama.
Range extent, area of occupancy, and number of subpopulations have declined over the long term. Some populations in Alabama have been extirpated (Boschung and Mayden 2004, O'Neil et al. 2009).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable. Etnier and Starnes (1993) stated that "unless land use practices change in this area [Tennessee], its status is reasonably secure."
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes stream edges, quiet backwaters, or pools of small to large creeks and small to moderate-size rivers with moderate current over sand and gravel, or over small cobble, pebble, and gravel substrates often covered with a thin layer of silt, where the darters usually occur in association with detritus, logs, or sticks, often where there are beds of water-willow (Kuehne and Barbour 1983, Page 1983, Ryon 1986, Etnier and Starnes 1993, Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011). Spawning occurs in shallow spring-fed seepage areas feeding headwater streams, including flooded wooded seepage areas, floodplain forests, and often-flooded pastures with shallow drainage ditches; adhesive eggs stick to plants and other objects (Page 1983, Ryon 1986, Etnier and Starnes 1993). The darters depend on a certain degree of flooding in order to access spawning habitat.|
Some Alabama populations were extirpated when occupied creeks were inundated by reservoirs (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Some habitat in Georgia was altered during highway (I-75) construction (Howell and Caldwell 1967). Current potential threats includes habitat degradation/loss resulting from land development and stream impoundment.
Jelks et al. (2008) categorized this species as Endangered due to (1) present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of habitat or range and (2) restricted range.
|Conservation Actions:||Relationship between this species and its habitat needs further elucidaion. The Conasauga River should be protected from further impoundment and fragmentation.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Etheostoma trisella. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 April 2015.|
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