Map_thumbnail_large_font

Etheostoma rubrum

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES PERCIDAE

Scientific Name: Etheostoma rubrum
Species Authority: Raney & Suttkus, 1966
Common Name(s):
English Bayou Darter

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-01-18
Assessor(s): NatureServe
Reviewer(s): Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.
Justification:
This species is listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 1,000 sq km, area of occupancy is around 100 sq km, number of locations is four, distribution is not severely fragmented, and habitat quality is declining.
History:
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)
1988 Vulnerable (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Vulnerable (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species' range is restricted to Bayou Pierre and its tributaries, including White Oak Creek, Foster Creek, and Turkey Creek (see maps in Ross et al. 1992, 2001; Page and Burr 2011). Bayou Pierre is a tributary of the Mississippi River in western Mississippi. Densities are highest in the upper parts of the Bayou Pierre system, but the species also persists as apparently self-sustaining populations in the middle and lower reaches of Bayou Pierre, at least down to its confluence with Little Bayou Pierre (Slack et al. 2004).

Bayou Pierre watershed encompasses about 2,500 square kilometers, 700 square kilometers of which is occupied by Etheostoma rubrum (Slack et al. 2010).
Countries:
Native:
United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is represented by a small number of occurrences in four streams (here regarded as four locations) (see map in Slack et al. 2010).

The total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. Ross et al. (2001) collected 1,108 bayou darters during 1986-1994; density in riffles averaged around one Bayou Darter per square meter.

Density was stable in the 1980s and 1990s, but distribution shifted upstream due to ongoing geomorphic changes (headcutting) (Ross et al. 2001).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This darter inhabits fast rocky riffles of shallow, meandering creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011). It prefers stable, moderately swift riffles and runs over large gravel and rock, and it seldom occurs over shifting substrates. Adults are most commonly collected near heads of gravel riffles in water less than 15-30 centimetres deep. Upstream distribution is apparently limited by low water flow in summer and fall (USFWS 1990).

Ross et al. (1990, 1992) characterized the habitat as mid-reach (typically third to fourth order) stream sections, with swift (mean 79 cm/sec), shallow water and firm coarse substrates (mean particle size 16-32 mm); in winter, Bayou Darters were associated with logs, cobble, and boulders, which may comprise important refugia during periods of high stream flow.

Bayou Darters apparently are egg buriers that probably use fine gravel or coarse sand (Ross and Wilkins 1993). Some larvae drift from spawning sites (Slack et al. 2004).
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this species are human-induced alterations of its habitat: floodplain/channel modification and farming-silviculture (may cause erosion and siltation), petroleum exploration and transportation (threaten water quality), and gravel mining (USFWS 1990).

Habitat is undergoing rapid channel and bank erosion (Ross and Wilkins 1993, Ross et al. 2001). Factors responsible for rapid headcutting are downstream of currently affected reaches in Bayou Pierre and the Mississippi River; these potentially include natural meander cut-offs, channel avulsion, channelization, and instream gravel mining (Ross et al. 2001). The impact of these changes on the Bayou Darter are not well understood. Ross et al. (2001) found no evidence of a population decline, but Ross (2001) stated that the ongoing habitat alteration may be detrimental to the long-term survival of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Actions needed (USFWS 1990): continue population and habitat monitoring programs; identify sources of habitat degradation; and protect darters and their habitat.

Citation: NatureServe 2013. Etheostoma rubrum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided