Cyanea kuhihewa 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Cyanea kuhihewa Lammers
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-03-08
Assessor(s): Lorence, D.H.
Reviewer(s): Clark, M. & Walsh, S.
Contributor(s): Nyberg, B. & Wood, K.

Cyanea kuhihewa is assessed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) as no plants are known in the wild. One original population of 12 plants was discovered in 1991. The species was described in 1996. However, all plants gradually died off in the years following the 1992 hurricane which severely impacted Kaua'i. By 1997 the population had decreased to three adult and three juvenile plants. In 2003, the last known individual in the wild died. This taxon previously occupied 0.023 km2 (area of occupancy). There is still potentially good habitat to search, but it occurs in steep, remote areas that are difficult to access. This taxon previously occurred on Laou ridge separating Limahuli and Hanakapiai Valleys, where there is still relatively good wet forest habitat. 

Prior to 2003, seeds were collected for genetic storage, but the stored seeds were later found to be non-viable. 

Assessment done by Kaua'i subgroup of IUCN SSC Hawaiian Plant Specialist Group.

Date last seen: 2003

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Not known in the wild, presumed possibly extinct. Historically known from the Hawaiian Islands, previously known from a single location between 520 and 579 metres elevation on the island of Kaua'i in upper Limahuli Valley. In 2003, the last known individual in the wild died. 

Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:00
Number of Locations:00
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Presumed possibly extinct in the wild since 2003.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0
No. of subpopulations:0

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Lowland wet forest with Metrosideros polymorpha, Dicranopteris linearis, Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium sp., Clermontia fauriei, Bidens sp., Dubautia knudseniiIlex anomala, Psychotria spp., Kadua spp., Melicope spp., Pipturus sp., Cyrtandra spp., and Antidesma sp. Forest canopy was severely damaged by Hurricane Iniki (1992), and the area is now heavily invaded by Clidemia hirta.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is now presumed to be possibly extinct as it has not been seen in the wild since 2003. The decline began after Hurricane Iniki in 1992, when the canopy of trees was destroyed. Following that, the area was covered with invasive alien plants, particularly Clidemia hirta.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Cyanea kuihewa is presumed to be possibly extinct in the wild as it was last seen in 2003, and prior to that was down to only a few individuals. It was probably extirpated by weeds following Hurricane Iniki when the canopy was destroyed. Seeds in storage should be retested to see if any are viable. All unsurveyed habitat remaining in the general area needs to be checked for any individuals.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Citation: Lorence, D.H. 2016. Cyanea kuhihewa (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T80230488A115511187. . Downloaded on 26 September 2018.
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