Cyanea kolekoleensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Cyanea kolekoleensis (H.St.John) Lammers
Delissea kolekoleensis H. St. John
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-12
Assessor(s): Kishida, W. & Wood, K.
Reviewer(s): Clark, M. & Bruegmann, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Frances, A. & Schatz, G.E.

Cyanea kolekoleensis is Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) because it has a population size of zero. The species was discovered in 1987 with a population size of approximately 15 mature individuals.  The original population had an area of occurrence of 0.94 km2. The population size had decreased to seven individuals by the early 1990s, and only one individual was observed in 1998. The species has not been seen since 1998 despite many surveys.

The habitat is threatened by pigs and non-native invasive plant speciesThis area was impacted by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Storage and propagation for this species was attempted, but none of the plants survived. There is currently none in storage or cultivation. There is still suitable habitat available for this species, but the quality of the habitat is declining. Surveys need to be done to assess if this species is still extant.

Date last seen: 1998

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, and was historically found between 650 and 755 m elevation. It was known only from the Wahiawa Drainage.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:0
Lower elevation limit (metres):650
Upper elevation limit (metres):755
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The taxon has not been observed since 1998. When it was originally discovered in 1987, there were approximately 15 mature individuals in one subpopulation. By the early 1990s, the only known subpopulation was represented by seven mature individuals.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a shrub that was found in lowland wet forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha - Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet forest. It was observed on stream banks and confluences of streams.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no known uses for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The habitat is threatened by pigs and non-native invasive plant species such as Clidemia hirta, Psidium cattleianum, Cyathea cooperi. This area was impacted by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Predation by nonnative slugs and rats is likely a threat to individuals of all Cyanea species in Hawaii (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010). 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed as Endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010) and is also on the State of Hawaii's Endangered Species List. The one observed population occurred on private land and was not in a protected area. Conducting surveys in existing potential habitat is essential to determining whether this species is extant. Potential suitable habitat is difficult to access and potentially includes areas outside of the single location where it was originally collected. The potential suitable habitat is typically accessible only by helicopter, and requires permission from the private landowners. Storage and propagation for this species was attempted, but none of the plants survived (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2010). Other research and conservation actions are dependent on rediscovery of the species.

Citation: Kishida, W. & Wood, K. 2015. Cyanea kolekoleensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T80230419A80230474. . Downloaded on 21 September 2018.
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