|Scientific Name:||Aspidoscelis exsanguis|
|Species Authority:||(Lowe, 1956)|
Cnemidophorus exsanguis Lowe, 1956
|Taxonomic Notes:||Reeder et al. (2002) examined phylogenetic relationships of the whiptail lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus based on a combined analysis of mitochondrial DNA, morphology, and allozymes. They determined that Cnemidophorus in the traditional sense is paraphyletic and thus in need of nomenclatural revision. Rather than subsume all cnemidophorine species (including Kentropyx) in a single large genus (Ameiva), they proposed a split that placed the North American "Cnemidophorus" clade in the monophyletic genus Aspidoscelis; under this arrangement, South American taxa remain in the genus Cnemidophorus.
This species is a parthenogenetic allotriploid of hybrid origin. Allozyme and mDNA data indicate that C. exsanguis probably arose by the hybridization of C. septemvittatus or C. scalaris with an allodiploid intermediate form (or forms) created by one or more earlier hybridization events involving a male C. inornatus and a female C. costatus or C. burti stictogrammus (see Stuart 1991). Putative similarity to C. flagellicaudus and C. sonorae is overrated according to Frost and Wright (1988). This species formerly was included in other species of the sexlineatus species group. See Stuart (1991) for a review of the nomenclatural history of this species.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Hammerson, G.A., Frost, D.R. & Santos-Barrera, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the fairly large and probably relatively stable extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size. No major threats are known.
|Range Description:||The range extends from the upper Rio Grande, Pecos River, and Canadian River valleys of New Mexico southward through western Texas to central Chihuahua (Rio Conchos and Rio Papigochic drainage basins) and westward to southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora, at elevations of 760 to 2,440 m asl (2,500 to 8,000 feet) (Stuart 1991).|
Native:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by hundreds of occurrences or subpopulations (e.g., see maps Stuart 1991 and Degenhardt et al. 1996). The total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000. The extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulation, and population size are probably relatively stable. The population is fine in Mexico.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitats include desert, desert grassland, oak-pine woodland, and ponderosa pine, on rocky slopes, along sandy washes, and in canyons (Stebbins 2003). The species occurs primarily in Madrean evergreen woodlands (oak-juniper, juniper, juniper-pinyon associations) on mountain bajadas and valley sides; it ranges upslope to Great Basin conifer and lower Madrean montane forests, and it descends to semi-desert grassland, Chihuahuan desert scrub, and (locally) riparian floodplain communities (Stuart 1991). Eggs are laid in a nest dug in soil/underground.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats have been identified.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in several parks and other protected areas. No direct conservation measures are currently needed.|
|Citation:||Hammerson, G.A., Frost, D.R. & Santos-Barrera, G. 2007. Aspidoscelis exsanguis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 March 2015.|
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