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Calopogon multiflorus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Calopogon multiflorus Lindl.
Common Name(s):
English Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-08-23
Assessor(s): Goedeke, T., Sharma, J., Treher, A., Frances, A. & Poff, K.
Reviewer(s): Rankou, H.
Justification:
Based on the best data available, assessors estimate an area of occupancy (AOO) of 232 km2, not including historic sites and areas where the orchid may no longer occur. The species is listed as Endangered by Florida and North Carolina United States Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (2014). It is a species of Special Concern in Georgia. In Alabama and Louisiana, the species rarity ranking is S1, meaning there are “five or fewer occurrences, very few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or some factor of its biology making it especially vulnerable” in Alabama and that it is “critically imperiled in Louisiana because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer known extant populations) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation” (Alabama Plant Atlas Editorial Committee 2014, Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed June 2014). The primary threat to the Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid is fire suppression in its habitat; fire suppression is highly correlated with the presence of residential and commercial development (A. Schotz pers. comm. 2014). Also a threat to this species is direct habitat destruction due to development or conversion of habitat for agro-forestry or other agricultural uses (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed June 2014). Finally the species is sold in the horticultural industry in the United States. These threats are current and present throughout the entire range of the species.

Although this species has a restricted AOO of 232 km2, which meets the B2 threshold for Endangered, and is undergoing continuing declines, meeting subcriteria b(i,ii,iii,iv), this species is not severely fragmented, it is not undergoing extreme fluctuations, and the number of locations is far above the Vulnerable threshold (60-61 locations, with a threshold of 10). Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The range of the Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid is located in the southeastern United States in the coastal plains of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina (Goldman et al. 2004a). The majority of the species range is found in central and north Florida. The coastal plain within Mississippi and Alabama are also part of the species’ range. The species is known to occur in one county in Louisiana (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed June 2014). The Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid is found patchily in Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. There are 60 to 61 known sites where the Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid occurs or has been known to occur across its range. The estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 232 km2, not including historic sites where the orchid may no longer occur, and the extent of occurrence (EOO) is 541,659 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:232Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:541659
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:60-61Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Reliable assessments of the Many-flowered Grass-pink’s population status across its range are not available. Like other orchid species, this taxon is difficult to locate during surveys and plants are unpredictably dormant (Goldman and Orzell 2000). There are 60 to 61 known sites where the Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid occurs or has been known to occur across its range. However, at the majority of these sites the number of individual plants counted during surveys has been low, from one to 20 plants. There are three to four sites where the orchid was previously documented but now no longer occurs. Thus, some decline in the range of this species is already noted. The rarity and vulnerability of this species is established. According to the “Plants Database,” provided by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (2014), the species is listed as Endangered by Florida and North Carolina. It is a species of Special Concern in Georgia. In Alabama and Louisiana, the species rarity ranking is S1, meaning there are “five or fewer occurrences, very few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or some factor of its biology making it especially vulnerable” in Alabama and that it is “critically imperiled in Louisiana because of extreme rarity (five or fewer known extant populations) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation” (Alabama Plant Atlas Editorial Committee 2014, Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed June 2014).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Population severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
All individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Many-flowered Grass-pink orchid occurs in dry mesic pine savanna and flatwood, as well as dry prairie communities (Goldman and Orzell 2000, Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed June 2014). The species commonly occurs with Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris), Blackjack Oak (Quercus marilandica), Little Gallberry/Ink Berry (Ilex glabra), Slender Bluestem (Schizachyrium tenerum), Little Bluestem (S. scoparium), Wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana), Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens), Pinland Chaffhead (Carphephorus carnosus), Dwarf Live Oak (Quercus minima) and Savannah Meadow Beauty (Rhexia alifanus) (D.H. Goldman, personal communication). The species thrives with habitat disturbance from fire; the plants demonstrate more vigorous flowering after fire disturbance (Goldman and Orzell 2000, R. LeBlond pers. comm. 2014, A. Schotz pers. comm 2014).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is presently marketed and sold in the horticultural industry in the United States. However, data on the extent of sale or demand for the species are not known. Nor is information available on incidence of illegal collection of wild plants for personal possession, sale or trade. According to D.H. Goldman (pers. comm.), the species is easily cultivated. Thus, sale and trade may not necessarily pose a threat to the species. However, illegal collection of wild plants is possible, particularly if horticultural demand for the species is high or increases over time. Illegal collection and trade are common threats for most species of orchid.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The primary threat to the Many-flowered Grass-pink Orchid is fire suppression in its habitat; fire suppression is highly correlated with the presence of residential and commercial development (A. Schotz pers. comm. 2014). Also of threat to this species is direct habitat destruction due to development or conversion of habitat for agro-forestry or other agricultural uses (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed on June 2014). These threats are current and present throughout the species entire range. Of possible threat to this species is the illegal collection and trade of wild plants; the species is marketed in the horticultural industry in the United States.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: According to the Plants Database, provided by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (2014), the species is listed as Endangered by Florida and North Carolina. It is a species of Special Concern in Georgia. In Alabama and Louisiana, the species rarity ranking is S1, meaning there are “five or fewer occurrences, very few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or some factor of its biology making it especially vulnerable” in Alabama and that it is “critically imperiled in Louisiana because of extreme rarity (five or fewer known extant populations) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation” (Alabama Plant Atlas Editorial Committee 2014, Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, webpage accessed June 2014). Protective designations within states generally carry provisions banning the collection or destruction of plants. The species in not protected at the federal level. Conservation actions that would mitigate major threats to the species include the protection of known habitat, as well as the protection of sufficient buffer areas around such habitat to ensure the use of fire as a management tool. Horticultural trade of the species should be restricted to cultivated plants only. Domestic and international trade of the species should be carefully monitored or restricted. This species is listed on CITES Appendix II (CITES 2015).

Citation: Goedeke, T., Sharma, J., Treher, A., Frances, A. & Poff, K. 2016. Calopogon multiflorus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T64175911A86066804. . Downloaded on 23 November 2017.
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