Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae

Scientific Name: Pongo pygmaeus ssp. morio
Species Authority: (Owen, 1837)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Northeast Bornean Orangutan
Taxonomic Notes: The Asian primate classification recently published by Brandon-Jones et al. (2004) recognized only two subspecies for the Bornean Orangutan: P. p. pygmaeus and P. p. wurmbii. However, at the last orangutan PHVA (Singleton et al. 2004), an additional subspecies was recognized: Pongo pygmaeus morio.

Warren et al. (2001) used the control region of the mitochondrial DNA on six different Bornean populations and identified four distinct subpopulations with particular regional diversity and geographic clustering: (1) Southwest and Central Kalimantan; (2) Northwest Kalimantan and Sarawak; (3) Sabah; and (4) East Kalimantan. If we correlate those four subpopulations with the three subspecies described above, we have P. p. pygmaeus in (1), P. p. wurmbii in (2) and P. p. morio in (3) and (4).

P. p. pygmaeus: Northwest Bornean Orangutan:
- Sarawak (Malaysia)
- Northwest Kalimantan (Indonesia)

P. p. wurmbii: Central Bornean Orangutan:
- Southern west Kalimantan
- Central Kalimantan (Indonesia)

P. p. morio: Northeast Bornean Orangutan:
- East Kalimantan (Indonesia)
- Sabah (Malaysia)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Williamson, E.A. (Primate Red List Authority)
There has been an estimated decline of orangutan well over 50% during the last 60 years (generation length estimated at 20 years). The decline of the species is predicted to continue at this rate, primarily because of forest loss due to conversion of forest to agriculture and fires. The majority of remnant wild populations are located outside of protected areas, in forests that are exploited for timber production or in the process of being converted to agriculture. Last but not least, poaching and the pet-trade remain major threats to across most of Borneo.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2007 Endangered (EN)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Sabah)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).

Citation: Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S. 2008. Pongo pygmaeus ssp. morio. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T63544A12689754. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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