|Scientific Name:||Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill, 1815)|
Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill, 1815)
Dasyatis hastata (DeKay, 1842)
Raja centroura Mitchill, 1815
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N., Fricke, R. and Van der Laan, R. (eds). 2016. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 29 September 2016. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 29 September 2016).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The "thorny tail stingray complex" needs additional study. The populations in the eastern Atlantic and Uruguay may represent different species (Struhsaker 1969, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998). The status of the single record from India is unknown.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2d (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rosa, R., Furtado, M., Snelson, F.F., Piercy, A., Grubbs, D., Serena, F. & Mancusi, C.|
|Reviewer(s):||Dulvy, N.K. & Allen, D.J.|
|Contributor(s):||Walls, R.H.L., Morey, G & Buscher, E.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Walls, R.H.L. & Dulvy, N.K.|
Mediterranean regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
The Roughtail Stingray (Dasyatis centroura) is one of the largest marine and brackish water stingrays distributed widely throughout the Atlantic. Subpopulations in the Northwest Atlantic, Southwest Atlantic and eastern Atlantic are considered separate. The large size (up to 260 cm disc width) and low fecundity (two to six pups per litter) of this ray make it intrinsically sensitive to depletion. In the Mediterranean Sea it is captured in trawl and artisanal fisheries operating throughout much of its depth range. It has rarely been reported from the Mediterranean Sea, where intense trawl fisheries operate at depths of 50-800 m. The Roughtail Stingray is suspected to have declined in the Mediterranean Sea based on i) the complete overlap between its depth range and the reach of demersal fisheries; ii) its apparent rarity in these waters; iii) its intrinsic sensitivity to overexploitation; and iv) the decline in comparable elasmobranch species in this region. A decline of 30% over the three-generation period (51 years) is inferred, therefore qualifying the species as Vulnerable under Criterion A2d. There are no new management efforts in place, and monitoring of harvest levels should be undertaken to identify trends.
|Range Description:||The Roughtail Stingray is present throughout coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea (Ebert and Stehmann 2013).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland)); Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Montenegro; Morocco; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Population:||In the Mediterranean Sea, this species was reported as most common off Algeria, Sicily, and Tunisia (Whitehead et al. 1984). In 6,336 scientific trawls conducted during the International Trawl Survey in the Mediterranean (MEDITS) from 1994 to 1999 at depths of 10 to 800 m, only one specimen was reported throughout the northern Mediterranean Sea (Baino et al. 2001). From the 22 Italian “Gruppo Nazionale Dermersali” (GRUND) surveys between 1985 and 1998, the percentage presence for this species was one of the lowest registered (0.83%) and it was caught only in the South Ligurian Seas and Sardinian waters (Relini et al. 2000). This stingray is suspected to have declined by at least 30% in the Mediterranean Sea based on i) the complete overlap between its depth range and operating demersal fisheries (see “Threats” section); ii) its intrinsic sensitivity to overexploitation (see “Habitat and Ecology” section); and iii) the similar decline in comparable elasmobranch species in this region.|
Considering the available data on the decline of its congener, the Common Stingray (D. pastinaca), and the fact that the Roughtail Stingray has a much larger size but the same depth range, the species is inferred to have declined throughout the Mediterranean sea by 30% over the three-generation period of 51 years.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
The Roughtail Stingray is found over sandy and muddy habitats, occasionally in brackish water. It is usually recorded down to 200 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea (Whitehead et al. 1984, Notarbartolo and Bianchi 1998).
This species is live bearing with yolk-sac. Size at birth is 8–13 cm DW (Bini 1967, Notarbartolo and Bianchi 1998). Gestation lasts for a minimum of four months and fecundity ranges from two to six pups per litter (Capapé 1993).
This is one of the largest known stingrays, with a maximum recorded size of 260 cm disc width (DW) and 290 kg from the southern Adriatic Sea (Dulcic et al. 2003). Estimated size at maturity in the Mediterranean Sea is 80 cm and 66–100 cm DW for males and females, respectively (Capapé 1993). Its generation length is inferred from similar species to be 17 years.
|Generation Length (years):||17|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||The Roughtail Stingray is not used commercially, although it is taken as bycatch.|
|Major Threat(s):||The Roughtail Stingray is taken as bycatch of artisanal fisheries, bottom set longline, gillnet, and handline in Mediterranean waters (Fischer et al. 1987). Benthic trawlers have increased both effort and efficiency in the shelf and slope areas of the Mediterranean Sea over the last 60 years. The continental shelf and upper slope are highly exploited, with intensive commercial trawling occurring at depths ranging from 50 to 800 m (Colloca et al. 2003, Massutí and Moranta 2003). As a result there has been increasing concern about changes in the abundance and diversity of elasmobranchs in this region, and decreases in the abundance and biomass of some species throughout the last decade have been reported in highly exploited areas such as the Gulf of Lions (Aldebert 1997, Massutí and Moranta 2003). Although no species-specific data are available, the very large size and associated life history traits of this stingray makes it intrinsically sensitive to population depletion.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no measures in place to protect this species in Mediterranean waters. Monitoring should prioritise harvest levels in order to infer population trends in the region.|
|Citation:||Rosa, R., Furtado, M., Snelson, F.F., Piercy, A., Grubbs, D., Serena, F. & Mancusi, C. 2016. Bathytoshia centroura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T63152A16527813.Downloaded on 22 June 2018.|
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