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Vipera ammodytes

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA VIPERIDAE

Scientific Name: Vipera ammodytes
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name/s:
English Nose-horned Viper
Taxonomic Notes: This species is in need of taxonomic clarification, as the delineation between Vipera ammondytes and V. transcaucasiana is considered by some experts to be unclear. Vipera transcaucasiana, is considered by some authors (e.g.. Baran and Atatür 1998; McDiarmid et al. 1999; Tomović 2006; Ursenbacher et al. 2008) to be a subspecies of Vipera ammodytes. We tentatively retain it here as separate from Vipera ammodytes with details for populations currently allocated to Vipera transcaucasiana provided in a separate account and map.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor/s: Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, Uğur Kaya, Roberto Sindaco, Wolfgang Böhme, Petros Lymberakis, Rastko Ajtic, Varol Tok, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Murat Sevinç, Ljiljana Tomović, Pierre-André Crochet, Idriz Haxhiu, Ulrich Joger, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Göran Nilson, Dušan Jelić
Reviewer/s: Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough (30% or greater) to qualify for listing in a more threatened category at the global level.
History:
1996 Not Evaluated

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species ranges eastwards from southern Austria and northeastern Italy into the Balkan region and southern and southwestern Romania, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia and Greece (including a number of the Cyclades Islands). It Turkey it ranges to the west of the Bosphorus (east of the Bosphorus is V. transcaucasiana). The species ranges from sea level up to 2,500 m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Georgia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Turkey
Introduced:
Switzerland
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is very common in much of its range.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is associated with rocky areas but can be opportunistic in other habitats. It can be found in dry, often rocky habitats, including open woodland and scrub, sand dunes, hillsides, screes, stone walls, traditionally cultivated land, gardens and vineyards. The species is ovoviviparous; females give birth to between four and 15 young.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is locally threatened by overcollection in parts of its range (e.g., in Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania and isolated populations in the Alps) by collection of animals for venom extraction. As with many snakes, this species is generally persecuted by people.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention, on Annex IV of the European Union Habitat and Species Directive and is protected by national legislation in parts of its range. It is present in many protected areas. There is a need for further taxonomic studies into the relationship between Vipera ammondytes and V. transcaucasiana.
Citation: Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, Uğur Kaya, Roberto Sindaco, Wolfgang Böhme, Petros Lymberakis, Rastko Ajtic, Varol Tok, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Murat Sevinç, Ljiljana Tomović, Pierre-André Crochet, Idriz Haxhiu, Ulrich Joger, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Göran Nilson, Dušan Jelić 2009. Vipera ammodytes. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.
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