|Scientific Name:||Coregonus sardinella|
|Species Authority:||Valenciennes, 1848|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Coregonus baunti Muchomedijarov, 1948
|Taxonomic Notes:||Available data do not allow to distinguish C. albula as a whole from C. sardinella and C. vandesius. A very high variability is reported for all morphological characters between the many populations referred to C. albula, suggesting that several species might be involved. Further studies are needed to resolve their identity.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Lakes and lower course of large rivers of Arctic Ocean basin, from Pechora drainage to eastern Siberia; North America eastward to Bathurst (Canada). C. 'albula' from Lakes Mjosa and Osensjoen (Norway) might also belong to this species.|
Native:Canada; Russian Federation; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lakes, estuaries and large rivers. Semi-anadromous populations forage in estuaries, lower courses of rivers, backwaters and lakes. Spawns on sand and gravel, in deep pools.
Lacustrine and semi-anadromous populations. Lives up to 10 years, exceptional records up to 22 years in Norway. Spawns for the first time at 3-4 years. Semi-anadromous populations migrate upstream in June-September; in Pechora up to 800-1000 km from sea. In Kara, spawns in estuary. In Kara and some Siberian rivers, two spawning runs are known. First run enters rivers in August and spawns in September; second run starts in September and spawns in October soon before or after appearance of ice. Eggs hatch in spring and juveniles remain near spawning site until first autumn, then move downriver. In tundra lakes, spawns under first ice in October. Feeds on zooplankton, crustaceans and small fish. Adults do not feed during spawning migration. An isolated, dwarf stock growing to about 100 mm SL is known from Vashutkiny lakes, in upper Usa drainage, a Pechora tributary. The Pechora population may at least partly result of hybridization between C. albula and C. sardinella.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Coregonus sardinella. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 March 2015.|
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