Gracixalus supercornutus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Rhacophoridae

Scientific Name: Gracixalus supercornutus (Orlov, Ho & Nguyen, 2004)
Philautus supercornutus (Orlov, Ho & Nguyen, 2004)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-07-10
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Angulo, A. & Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Rowley, J.L. & Nguyen, T.Q.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Leung, H. & Luedtke, J.

Listed as Near Threatened since the species has an area of occupancy (AOO) of 2,977 km2, an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 21,941 km2, and there is ongoing degradation and loss of its habitat, which may be causing the population to decrease. It is thus close to qualifying as Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+B2ab(iii).

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species occurs in montane forests in central Viet Nam (Thua Thien-Hue, Da Nang, Quang Nam, Kon Tum and Gia Lai Provinces) at relatively high elevations, between 1,100-1,905 m asl (Orlov et al. 2004, Rowley et al. 2011, J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015). The type locality is Bach Ma National Park, Viet Nam (Orlov et al. 2004). It also occurs in the provinces of Salavan and Khammouane in southern Lao PDR (Luu et al. 2014). Because suitable habitat is widely available, its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. These areas were excluded from the estimate of extent of occurrence (EOO) resulting in a value of 21,941 km2, within which its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be 2,977 km2.

Countries occurrence:
Lao People's Democratic Republic; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:2977Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):UnknownEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:21941
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:UnknownLower elevation limit (metres):1100
Upper elevation limit (metres):1905
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The abundance and population trends of this species are unknown. However, it is not thought to be severely fragmented and, due to ongoing habitat loss, its population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

It occurs in high elevation montane evergreen forests where it has been observed on leaves and branches of low-lying vegetation above shallow, non-flowing water bodies (Orlov et al. 2004, Rowley et al. 2011, Luu et al. 2014, J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015). This usually includes shallow pools and puddles that are near streams (Orlov et al. 2004, Rowley et al. 2011, Luu et al. 2014, J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015), although the species has also been observed in large numbers on emergent vegetation in a large swamp (J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015).

Females are known to deposit clutches of 5-8 eggs on top of leaf surfaces near the tip, with each clutch appearing like a clump of clear jelly (Orlov et al. 2004, J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015). Orlov et al. (2004) reported the presence of an attendant male guarding a clutch. While larvae have been observed at various developmental stages (Orlov et al. 2004), the reproductive and breeding biology of the species remain poorly known (J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of the species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Due to human population growth and increasing demand for agricultural and timber products as well as road construction, the loss of montane forest habitat is ongoing and expected to increase throughout central Viet Nam (Meyfroidt et al. 2013, Truong Nguyen pers. comm. 2015). Thus, habitat loss due to expanding human settlements, shifting and small-scale agriculture, logging and roads is a threat to this forest-dependent species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation Actions
It occurs in a number of protected areas in Viet Nam, including Bach Ma National Park, Ba Na National Park (Orlov et al. 2004), Kon Ka Kinh National Park, and Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve (J. Rowley pers. comm. 2015). In Lao PDR, the species is found in Xe Xap National Biodiversity Conservation Area and Hin Nam No National Biodiversity Conservation Area (Luu et al. 2014). Nonetheless, parts of the species’ range lie outside protected areas and are susceptible to habitat loss.

Conservation Needed
Improved protection of forest habitat throughout the species range is required.

Research Needed
Further biological and ecological research of the species is needed for a better understanding of its distribution and abundance, which would assist future conservation actions.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Gracixalus supercornutus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T61890A47152824. . Downloaded on 24 June 2018.
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