|Scientific Name:||Echium handiense Svent.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.|
Echium handiense is listed as Critically Endangered because its area of occupancy is 2 km² and all individuals occur in a single location, comprising 145 individuals. Population size presents a decreasing trend. Its habitat is very reduced due to bioclimatic conditions, and there is assumed to be continuing decline in its quality and extent due to grazing pressures.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Echium handiense is endemic to the island of Fuerteventura, the
Native:Spain (Canary Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Population in the only known location has been reported to be 145 individuals (Scholz 2004, Buord and Lesouëf 2006). Despite the extremely limited habitat available for this species and the low number of individuals, this habitat is considered to be stable and in an acceptable state of conservation. The number of seeds is variable depending on climatic conditions. Decreasing population trends have been reported (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
This small-medium shrub grows within rupicolous communities on north facing crags, influenced by trade wind fogs. In these sites thermophile humid shrublands are formed by species such as Heberdenia excelsa, Maytenus canariensis, Visnea mocanera, Argyranthemum winteri, Bupleurum handiense, Hypericum glandulosum, Jasminum odoratissimum, Nauplius sericeus, Ononis christii, Rhamnus crenulata, Senecio bollei, Sideritis pumila, Asparagus umbellatus, Smilax aspera ssp. mauritanica and Rubus bollei (Scholz 2004). Due to free roaming sheep and goat, the species is restricted to inaccessible cliffs, therefore its available habitat is very restricted. It can also appear in foothills and accessible ledges, but it disappears soon due to grazing pressure.
Grazing by free livestock (goats and sheep) and other herbivores (as rabbits) is the main threat to this species. Due to its highly restricted distribution the species is very vulnerable to possible natural hazards like prolonged drought, landslides and the introduction of competitors and diseases.
This taxon is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is classed Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii) in the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008). It is included as species "En peligro de extinción" in the national catalogue of threatened species and in the catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands.
The whole population of this species is within the limits of the protected area Parque Natural de Jandía (SCI) (Scholz 2004), but there are no real conservation measures in place. Seeds are stored in the germplasm banks of the Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and the E.T.S. de Ingenieros Agrónomos de Madrid.
Proposed measures include appropriate management of grazing activities in the area (exclusion areas and limitation of the amount of grazing animals), control of other herbivorous predators, ex situ cultivation and storage of seeds, and research about the ecological interactions taking place in the environment where the species occurs.
|Citation:||Scholz, S. 2011. Echium handiense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T61658A12518563.Downloaded on 24 September 2017.|
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