Echium handiense 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Lamiales Boraginaceae

Scientific Name: Echium handiense Svent.
Common Name(s):
Spanish Tajinaste de Jandía, Taginaste Azul de Jandía

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-03-13
Assessor(s): Scholz, S.
Reviewer(s): Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.

Echium handiense is listed as Critically Endangered because its area of occupancy is 2 km² and all individuals occur in a single location, comprising 145 individuals. Population size presents a decreasing trend. Its habitat is very reduced due to bioclimatic conditions, and there is assumed to be continuing decline in its quality and extent due to grazing pressures.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Echium handiense is endemic to the island of Fuerteventura, the Canary Islands, Spain, where it is found in a very small area of approximately 1 km² on the summit of Jandía mountain range, between the peaks of La Zarza (west) and of El Mocán (east). The peak of La Zarza is the type locality for the species. Its area of occupancy (AOO) has been estimated in 2 km² (Scholz 2004).

Countries occurrence:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:2
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):750
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


Population in the only known location has been reported to be 145 individuals (Scholz 2004, Buord and Lesouëf 2006). Despite the extremely limited habitat available for this species and the low number of individuals, this habitat is considered to be stable and in an acceptable state of conservation. The number of seeds is variable depending on climatic conditions. Decreasing population trends have been reported (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:145

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This small-medium shrub grows within rupicolous communities on north facing crags, influenced by trade wind fogs. In these sites thermophile humid shrublands are formed by species such as Heberdenia excelsa, Maytenus canariensis, Visnea mocanera, Argyranthemum winteri, Bupleurum handiense, Hypericum glandulosum, Jasminum odoratissimum, Nauplius sericeus, Ononis christii, Rhamnus crenulata, Senecio bollei, Sideritis pumila, Asparagus umbellatus, Smilax aspera ssp. mauritanica and Rubus bollei (Scholz 2004). Due to free roaming sheep and goat, the species is restricted to inaccessible cliffs, therefore its available habitat is very restricted. It can also appear in foothills and accessible ledges, but it disappears soon due to grazing pressure.


Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Grazing by free livestock (goats and sheep) and other herbivores (as rabbits) is the main threat to this species. Due to its highly restricted distribution the species is very vulnerable to possible natural hazards like prolonged drought, landslides and the introduction of competitors and diseases.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This taxon is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is classed Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii) in the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008). It is included as species "En peligro de extinción" in the national catalogue of threatened species and in the catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands.

The whole population of this species is within the limits of the protected area Parque Natural de Jandía (SCI) (Scholz 2004), but there are no real conservation measures in place. Seeds are stored in the germplasm banks of the Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and the E.T.S. de Ingenieros Agrónomos de Madrid.

Proposed measures include appropriate management of grazing activities in the area (exclusion areas and limitation of the amount of grazing animals), control of other herbivorous predators, ex situ cultivation and storage of seeds, and research about the ecological interactions taking place in the environment where the species occurs.

Citation: Scholz, S. 2011. Echium handiense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T61658A12518563. . Downloaded on 22 January 2018.
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