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Timon lepidus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA LACERTIDAE

Scientific Name: Timon lepidus
Species Authority: (Daudin, 1802)
Common Name(s):
English Ocellated Lizard
French Lezard Ocelle
Spanish Lagarto Ocelado, Lagarto Ocelado
Synonym(s):
Lacerta lepidus Daudin, 1802
Taxonomic Notes: This species was described as Lacerta, but it is now placed in the genus Timon (Mayer and Bischoff 1996; Fu 1998, 2000; Harris et al. 1998; Harris and Carretero 2003), though Montori and Llorente (2005) and Sindaco and Jeremčenko (2008) retain it in Lacerta. It consists of a number of distinct genetic lineages of uncertain taxonomic status. Paulo (2001) suggested that the subspecies Timon l. nevadensis is a distinct species, but other lines of evidence are more indicative of subspecific status (Mateo et al., 1996; Mateo and López-Jurado 1994).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Rafael Marquez, Marc Cheylan, Claudia Corti, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years), probably mainly because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
History:
2006 Near Threatened (IUCN 2006)
2006 Near Threatened

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widely found in Portugal and Spain; it is found as isolated populations in southern, south-central and western France (north to Oleron Island), and in extreme northwestern Italy. It also occurs on some Atlantic islands along the Spanish and Portuguese coasts. It is present on a few Mediterranean islands. It ranges from sea level up to 2,500m asl. The subspecies T.l. oteroi is endemic to Salvora Island in northwestern Spain.
Countries:
Native:
France; Italy; Portugal; Spain
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Although it has been recorded at densities of up to 50 individuals per hectare, populations appear to be strongly declining in many parts of its range. Some insular populations as well as Italian ones are close to extinction. The subspecies T.l. oteroi numbers fewer than 10,000 individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in open and dry areas of woodland, scrubland, olive groves, vineyards, meadows, arable areas and sandy or rocky sites. It is generally present in areas that have refuges such as bushes, stone walls, rabbit burrows and other holes. The females lay clutches of five to twenty two eggs.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is generally declining because of ongoing habitat loss, pesticide pollution and poisoning. Predators might also be eating this species more, due to the decline of rabbits. Also reduced livestock grazing might be reducing open areas suitable for this species. Current attempts to revive the former tradition of eating this species would also be very detrimental.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Further studies are needed in order to understand the recent population declines of this species better. It is listed on Annex III of the Bern Convention and is present in a number of protected areas, though it has nearly disappeared from a number of these.

Citation: Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Rafael Marquez, Marc Cheylan, Claudia Corti, Iñigo Martínez-Solano 2009. Timon lepidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 October 2014.
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