Phapitreron frontalis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Phapitreron frontalis
Species Authority: (Bourns & Worcester, 1894)
Common Name(s):
English Cebu Brown-dove
Taxonomic Notes: Phapitreron amethystinus, P. maculipectus and P. frontalis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. amethystinus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This newly-split dove has not been recorded with certainty since 1892, and any remaining population must be tiny and is inferred to be declining owing to the effects of ongoing habitat loss and degradation. It has therefore been listed as Critically Endangered, but following a possible sighting in 2004 it cannot yet be categorised as Extinct or tagged as Possibly Extinct until further searches have been carried out.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phapiteron frontalis is known only from the island of Cebu (Philippines), where it has been considered probably extinct (Dutson et al. 1993), after it was apparently last recorded in 1892 (Rabor 1959). However, in November 2004 two possible individuals were observed in Alcoy Forest (Paguntalan and Jakosalem 2008). Any remaining population must be extremely small.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species has not been observed with certainty since 1892, and Cebu has <0.03% of its original forest cover. Any remaining population must be tiny, and the population is therefore placed in the band 1-49 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is said to prefer hill and montane primary forest (Rabor 1959).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the 1890s, the small amount of forest remaining on Cebu was rapidly being cleared. A century later, Cebu retained barely 0.03% (c.15 km2) of its original cover, and even the most degraded secondary habitats were scarce. The few remaining tracts of forest are variously threatened by illegal settlement, road construction, shifting cultivation, illicit logging, charcoal making, firewood collection and habitat clearance for mining.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation and research actions underway
The Central Cebu National Park was declared a Strict Protection Zone in 1996. The felling of trees is prohibited in the reserve, but this confers little or no effective protection. Both Nug-as and Dalaguete are managed by organized local communities supported by the municipal government. Forest wardening schemes are in placed in Nug-as, Dalaguete and Argao forest patches. The local government of Carmen in the northern part of Cebu is directly involved in protecting existing patches of secondary forests.

Conservation and research actions proposed
Identify all remnant forest tracts on Cebu and urgently survey them for remaining populations. Continue to fund and implement management activities at Tabunan. Support the proposal to designate Mt Lantoy as a national park, and urgently propose all remaining forest tracts on Cebu, including Nug-As, for strict formal protection.

Citation: BirdLife International 2014. Phapitreron frontalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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