|Scientific Name:||Marcusenius livingstonii|
|Species Authority:||(Boulenger, 1899)|
Gnathonemus livingstonii Boulenger, 1899
Gnathonemus nyasensis Worthington, 1933
|Taxonomic Notes:||The synonomy of the Malawi and Rovuma populations needs to be verified using modern methods of electrical organ discharge and genetics.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bills, R., Engelbrecht, J. & Vreven, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Snoeks, J., Tweddle, D., Getahun, A., Lalèyè, P., Paugy, D., Zaiss, R., Fishar, M.R.A & Brooks, E.|
Although there has been a local decline in the sub-population in the Kidatu and Mtera dams and no where is it particularly common, the species is widespread with no known immediate threats to the main population, and no indication of declines or fluctuations. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. It is also categorized as Least Concern for eastern and southern Africa regional assessments.
|Range Description:||This species is known from Tanzania, Malawi, and northern Mozambique.
Eastern Africa: It is distributed in Kidatu dam, Mtera dam, and the Great Ruaha, Rufiji, Wami and Ruvuma rivers. It occurs throughout Lake Malawi and its catchment, the Middle Shire and the affluent streams of Lakes Chilwa and Chiuta.
Southern Africa: This species is present in the Rovuma River system.
Native:Malawi; Mozambique; Tanzania, United Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Catch compositions in Kidatu and Mtera dams have declined from 1.5% in 1987 to 0.01% in 1996 (Fish. Div. 1987,1996, Tamatamah 1996).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in shallow quiet waters in rivers, swamps, lagoons and sheltered estuaries, usually moving upstream in floodplains to spawn (Eccles 1992). A nocturnal feeder, feeding on invertebrates and weeds. It has been observed under the shelter of floating islands, a possible vector for dispersal, in Lake Malawi.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is heavily fished for human consumption.|
|Major Threat(s):||The Rovuma system is heavily fished by artisanal gill net fishermen. Braids and pools in the Rovuma system are also poisoned with traditional plant poisons. Elsewhere, this species is suffering negative impacts from commercial and illegal overfishing, pollution and siltation of the waterways, and habitat degradation from deforestation and agricultural encroachment.|
|Conservation Actions:||A better understanding of this species ecological range and population numbers is required. Taxonomic studies are needed to determine if Malawi and Rovuma populations are in fact the same species. Levels of exploitation and the impacts of this needs to be studied.|
|Citation:||Bills, R., Engelbrecht, J. & Vreven, E. 2010. Marcusenius livingstonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2015.|
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