|Scientific Name:||Etmopterus hillianus|
|Species Authority:||(Poey, 1861)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Closely related to Etmopterus robinsi with which it is sympatric.
Family Etmopteridae has been elevated out of Squalidae.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Herndon, A.P. & Burgess, G.H.|
|Reviewer/s:||Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D., Heupel, M.R. & Simpfendorfer, C.A. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Etmopterus hillianus is a small (probably to ~28 cm total length) deepwater shark with a range centered in the Western Central Atlantic from Virginia to Florida (US), Bahamas, Cuba, Bermuda, Hispaniola and the northern Lesser Antilles. Found on the upper continental and insular slopes at depths of 311 to 695 m. Easily confused with E. robinsi and little is known of its biology, although it is reported to have a small litter size of 4 to 5 young. Irregularly taken as discarded bycatch in deepwater demersal fisheries, however, this is not known to be a considerable catch. Similar to other lanternsharks for which no significant threats are apparent, this species is currently considered to be of Least Concern, although like many deepwater chondrichthyan species, more information on biology, ecology and fisheries are required. All deepwater fisheries in its range need to be carefully monitored and managed particularly as global deepwater fisheries continue to expand with the potential to negatively affect this species.
|Range Description:||Relatively narrow geographic range in the Western Central Atlantic (only recorded in the southern most part of the Northwest Atlantic).|
Native:Anguilla; Bahamas; Bermuda; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Haiti; Saint Kitts and Nevis; United States (Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia); Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Associated with the benthos and found on the upper continental and insular slopes at depths of 311 to 695 m (Compagno in prep. a). Found on sandy bottoms (Claro 1994).
Aplacental yolksac viviparous with litters of 4 to 5 (Compagno in prep. a), but generally little known of its biology. Reported maximum sizes to 50 cm TL probably due to confusion with E. robinsi, otherwise known to ~28 cm TL.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: unknown; Male: ~20 cm TL (Compagno in prep. a).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): Uncertain but possibility ~28 cm TL as reports of 50 cm TL are probably confusions with E. robinsi (Compagno in prep. a).
Size at birth: ~9 cm TL (Compagno in prep. a).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: 4?5 (Compagno in prep. a).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Not targeted and no threats apparent. It is known to be irregularly taken as discarded bycatch in some deepwater demersal fisheries, including some Cuban hook and line fisheries (Compagno in prep. a).
None known, probably discarded (probably too small to be utilised).
|Conservation Actions:||None in place. Like many deepwater chondrichthyan species more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required. Any expanding deepwater fisheries in the region (which could impact its habitat and population) need to be carefully monitored and managed.|
|Citation:||Herndon, A.P. & Burgess, G.H. 2006. Etmopterus hillianus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2014.|
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